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Neutral Ships at present in these seas, and be published and circulated in the customary manner.

Given in the Directorial Palace, Valparaiso, 20th August, 1820. BERNARDO O'HIGGINS.

DECLARATION of the Supreme Director of Chili, modifying the Blockade of the Ports of Peru.-22nd June, 1821.



THIS Government, agreeably to the principles of equity and justice, which have marked its proceedings in the glorious struggle for Independence against the tyrannical pretensions of the Cabinet of Madrid, desirous of giving to the Decree of Blockade published on the 20th of last August, respecting the Ports of Peru, a more specific and determinate sense, analogous to the actual situation of those Places,-the greater part of which have happily changed their political condition, owing to the successes of our liberating arms; to the influence of which already owe the full possession of their rights,-not only the Inhabitants from the north of Lima to beyond Guayaquil, but those of the Port of Arica and various Ports to the southward; and having understood that a certain modification in this respect may be favourable to the operations of the War, the happy termination of which is already near at hand; wishing also, under this change of circumstances, to follow the conduct which civilized Nations in general have observed; it has come to the resolution of declaring: that the Blockade ordered in the aforesaid Decree of the 20th of last August, is to be understood to remain unaltered, until the expiration of 20 days from the date hereof, and, thenceforth, to have effect only with respect to the Ports and anchorages of Peru, comprehended between the Port of Ancoa and Pisco inclusive; that is to say, along the line of Coast situated between 11°. 48". and 13°. 51". of south latitude; which will be considered in a state of rigorous Blockade, for the enforcement of which there will absolutely remain a sufficient force, in front of every Port along the whole extent of the Coast, between the said Ports of Ancoa and Pisco; and with respect to which line will continue in effect, and in full vigour, the Articles of the aforesaid Decree of the 20th of August, in so far as they are not in opposition, expressly and literally, to the present resolution; which is not to be considered as a suspension, much less a revocation, of that Decree, but merely a modification thereof, in as much as it only limits the extent of the line of Blockade.

Let it be published and communicated to all those whom it may


Given in the Directorial Palace, St. Jago de Chili, 22nd June, 1821.

NOTE of the Supreme Director of Chili to the Vice-Presiden of Colombia, respecting the terms of any reconciliation wit Spain.-17th August, 1821.



Santiago de Chili, 17th August, 1821. YOUR Excellency has not been mistaken, in believing that the independent spirit of the Republics of the River Plate and Chili, is the same as that of Colombia, described by his Excellency the President, in his Answer to Don Miguel de la Torre. No terms or propositions of any kind from Spain will be listened to for an instant, which do not commence with the recognition of the Independence of this Republic. The Government of the River Plate has answered the Spanish Commissioners to that effect, as your Excellency has no doubt seen by the Public Papers; and Chili will, in the same manner, answer Captain Abreu of the Spanish Frigate, which has arrived on the Coast of Peru, and is expected every hour in the river. This Frigate has been commissioned by the King of Spain to offer to us measures of reconciliation.

I have the honour, &c.


His Excellency Francisco de Paula Santander,

Vice President of Colombia.

NOTE of the Portuguese Envoy to the Chilian Envoy at Buenos Ayres, respecting the Recognition, by Portugal, of the Independence of Chili.



Buenos Ayres, 11th August, 1821.

His Most Faithful Majesty, my Sovereign, at the time of his return to Europe, thought fit to recognize the Independence of the Provinces of La Plata, which are in obedience to their respective Governments, and to enter into those intimate relations of friendship which he had long wished to maintain with the People of the Territories adjoining his Kingdom of Brazil; and it was a fatal concurrence alone of circumstances, in the interior of both Countries, or rather the vacillating policy of the States of Europe, which could have prevented His Majesty from mauifesting, before the present period, the whole extent of his liberal views.

His Most Faithful Majesty, well persuaded of the legitimacy of a Government, the existence of which is proved by the obedience of the People, waited only for the moment when the union of all might be demonstrated, in order to treat with the respective Governments, on the firm bases of sound policy, reciprocal interests, and the ties of com

merce, alliance and friendship, and thereby to secure the enjoyment of that peace which is always the most desirable object of the People of all Nations.

In pursuance of these principles, His Majesty has been pleased to appoint me his Agent to the Government of your State, and has furnished me with Credentials, to aid and promote all the interests of Commerce and the Kingdom.

In the Instructions given to me by the Minister Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, I am authorized to treat with the Envoys and Agents of all the neighbouring Provinces and States, who may be resident here in a public character; to whom I am ordered to declare, in a positive manner, that these liberal dispositions of His Majesty extend to their respective Governments.

And as, in the said Instructions, particular mention is made of the Government of the State of Chili, I can no longer deny myself the satisfaction of communicating to your Excellency, as the Minister of the Supreme Government in these Provinces, the generous sentiments of my Sovereign; in order that, in reporting them to your Government, you may at the same time declare, that the subjects of the State of Chili, will be treated in the States of His Majesty with all the consideration enjoyed by the Subjects of other Governments; and also that, from henceforth, the Agents, whether Diplomatic or Commercial, of that Government, will be received and treated at the Court of His Majesty with all the honours, distinction, and credit, which, agreeably to the general Law of Nations, are granted to similar Ministers and Agents of other Supreme Governments. I have, however, to inform your Excellency, that Diplomatic Agents must be accredited only to the Court of Lisbon, but that Consuls and Vice-Consuls will be admitted into the Ports of the Brazils, by permission of His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, while he continues to exercise the Royal Authority.

I am happy to have the honour of being the medium through which the generous sentiments of my Court are declared, and in having an opportunity which affords me the pleasure of assuring your Excellency, &c. JUAN MANUEL DE FIGUEIREDO.

His Excellency Don Miguel Zanartu.

ADDRESS of the first General Congress to the People, respecting the Independence of Colombia.-6th June, 1821.

The First General Congress of Colombia to all the Inhabitants, and the Sea and Land Forces, of the Republic.


YOUR Representatives, assembled in the first General Congress, have

the pleasure to announce to you the realization, on this day, of a new era, when your wishes are to be fulfilled, your sacrifices rewarded, and your felicity for ever secured. Your Fellow-citizens, to whom you have entrusted the Sovereign Legislative Power, at the same time that they express their sense of the high honour with which you have distin. guished them, are equally sensible of the enormous weight of responsibility under which they are placed, by the confidence reposed in them.

After 11 years of infinite calamities and convulsions, by which our Country has been torn to pieces, the bonds of social order almost dissevered, the peaceful arts neglected for the pursuit of arms, and the sources of public and private wealth closed, your Representatives would have despaired of being able to meet the duties of their high trust, if they could not rely on the concurrence of a People worthy of being free, and, above all, on the aid of that Providence that delights in rendering Man happy. Penetrated with these sentiments, on commencing the exercise of their duties, they were first called upon to examine the Fundamental Law which was to fix the destinies of this new Community, and, after profound and impartial discussions, the Representatives of what was formerly called the Captain-Generalship of Venezuela and Vice-Royalty of New Granada, assembled in a General Convention on the 4th of this Month, sanctioned the union of both in one National Body, forming one sole Republic, under the express compact that the Government shall be popular and represen tative.

This solemn declaration of the general will, expressed by your legitimate Representatives, offers to your view, Colombians, an infant Repub. lic, extended over an immense surface of Country; enriched by the most precious gifts of a beneficent Providence; inhabited by Men who have preferred death to an ignominious slavery; sanctified by the martyr. dom of its wise men; and honoured with the blood of its heroes. Such is the Country, Colombians, which you have gained as the reward of your constancy, virtues, and sufferings; such the Nation, whose existeuce, commenced under the auspices of this day, will rapidly advance towards that glory and prosperity which the human mind cannot contemplate. By presenting itself powerful and respectable to the Nations of the World, with whom it is about to enter into friendly relations, and by crossing the seas with the rich products of its soil, it will at the same time become more and more terrible to those who may dare to attempt to deprive it of the rights which it has acquired by the Sovereign Founder of all Societies.

Your Representatives, by employing all the resources of their wis dom, zeal and patriotism, hasten to dedicate their efforts to consolidate this happy union. A Government in which the Legislative and Executive Authorities shall be exercised by Citizens, periodically chosen

by yourselves; a proper division of the Country for the more convenient administration of Justice; personal security; economy in the expenditure authorized by your Representatives; a scrupulous adherence to the engagements made on the public faith; the freedom of the Press, which insures and circulates the spirit of Liberty :-such is the outline of the Institutions our Republic requires, and to the establishment of which the Congress will consecrate all its labours.

And you, worthy Defenders of Colombia, on whom innumerable dangers and severe hardships have had no other effect, than to strengthen your inflexible determination to found the liberties of your Country on the basis of Independence; you, who after a continued series of triumphs have witnessed this glorious day, accept, in the name of your Fellow-Citizens, all the acknowledgments which the national gratitude can express. The General Congress of Colombia, the work of your own hands, present their cordial congratulations, on this occasion, to all the Troops of the Republic; to all its brave Officers of every denomination, and, particularly, to those distinguished Chiefs, whose courage, wisdom and constancy, during the calamitous periods of our expiring liberty, defended our sacred cause with persevering energy, till its triumph was secured by the extermination of its Enemies. The Congress, in this expression of their sentiments, assign a most distinguished place to the Liberator, who, with so much glory, has commanded you, and whose eminent services and indefatigable perseverance during the Contest, has entitled him to immortal praise and our eternal gratitude.

Soldiers !-Follow up your triumphs, until you have for ever expelled the remnant of the Enemy who yet treads our soil, when, restored to your own peaceful homes, you may enjoy the sweet recollection of your glories, and the benedictions of the People whom you have redeemed from slavery. The Congress acknowledge, as one of their first obligations, the duty of providing the means necessary to relieve your present privations, and of preparing for you, hereafter, the recompence due to you from national justice.

And you, Inhabitants of Colombia, who still groan under the yoke of a Government not your own, the Congress will not forget you. Nothing can more strongly excite their sentiment of compassion than your fate. But, be of good heart, and await the coming of your Countrymen, who, abandoning the repose of life, already advance with victorious arms, to give you the embrace of fraternal love, and to obtain for you the desired moment of your incorporation in the bosom of the Republic. Co-operate on your part, to accelerate the happy day when the children of Colombia, united in one spirit, under a popular and representative Government, and invariably adhering to the Republican principles which we have proclaimed, shall become slaves only to the Laws, in order to become free.

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