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of France by war; and, of course, instead
of calling out for peace, they would call out
for the previous measure of Parliamentary
Reform.- -A peace at this time, or at
any time, leaving France in possession of
Holland, the Austrian Netherlands, Italy,
and Naples; such a peace, it cannot be too
often repeated, would not enable us to save
a shilling, while it would reduce our means
of paying taxes, and would enable Napoleon
to make a marine force capable of giving
us serious annoyance in case of another war.
But, if we, by arming the people of this king-
dom, could save, at once the expenses of the
army and of a large portion of the navy, then,
indeed, a peace would be worth having;
we should then be in safety, and the coun-
try, relieved from a large portion of its
enormous burdens, would be comparatively
happy. This, I repeat it, is to be accom-
plished only by making voting and arms-
bearing go
hand in hand; and, therefore,
I say, give us a Parliamentary Reform, as
being the only sure road to a safe and lasting
peace.- As to the wars of Russia and
Prussia; as to the proclamations of those
sovereigns and their generals; as to the
vows and acclamations of the people whom
they address; what do all these amount to?
They are of very little consequence to us.
Even the complete success of these our new
friends would do nothing for the people of
England, whatever it might do for the peo-
ple of their own countries. For my part,
I can see nothing that the people of the
Prussian States are likely to gain by the
change. They will change masters. They
will fall back into the hands that they were
formerly in. Their condition will not be
mended. The successes of Russia may
open a channel for our commerce; but, I
take it, that will be all. The power of
France will continue nearly the same with
regard to England. At the very best, all
I expect from those successes is a mitigation
of the Continental System. So far, how-
ever, am I from believing in the continua-
tion of those successes, that I believe most
firmly they will speedily come to an end.
The French armies are upon the point of
once more moving forward; and it will not
be easy to make me doubt of their defeating
those whom they have so often driven be-
fore them. I am aware of the effect of the
turning of the tide of victory; but, this is
not the first time that the French armies
have had to stem such a tide. Reverses in
war have never yet subdued their spirit:
the whole nation partakes in the feelings of
its chief they are. now goaded on by the


two furious passions of ambition and re-
venge: and, whatever they are capable of,
may now be expected from them.
In the last Number, p. 562, l. 6,
for take off read talk of.

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(Continued from page 576.)

no hesitation in saying, that, to the best of
my recollection, it contains the substance of
what I said in my place. Some verbal in-
accuracies are quite immaterial.—I am
bound to fulfil your Lordship's hope, by
making your Letter to me public. In en-
deavouring to obtain the explanation of
passages so generally misunderstood, I knew
not how to proceed effectually, but by mo-
tion in the House of Commons; and the
motion having been calculated to obtain
your Lordship's attendance in the House of
Commons, if successful, your Lordship
would have had the opportunity of giving
the explanations, in the very place where
they were asked for; and I never had any
doubt of their honourable and satisfactory
nature. But the discussions in the House
of Commons having now been dropped (as
I sincerely hope never again to be reviv-
ed), I will send your Letter, and my an-
swer, directly to the Public Journals.-
It will give me pleasure to acknowledge,
by the same means, much personal civility
received at various times from your Lord-
ship; and particularly in the manner in
which I was requested, and the urbanity
with which I was received, to peruse the
documents to which your Lordship has re-
ferred in the early part of the present year.
In the discussions which afterwards arose,
I did not use the knowledge I had so ac-
quired of any one of them, until after it
had appeared in print.I regret, that
in the course of these discussions I have gi-
ven momentary pain to their Lordships,
or cause of dissatisfaction to any persons,
of whose friendship and esteem I was pleas-
ed in thinking I possessed a share. The
loss, if lost, is entirely my own-it is pain-
ful to me. But justice has been the object
of my pursuit-that pursuit has been con-
scientiously conducted by me, and must
therefore, of necessity, have been free
from all selfish considerations.--With-
the addition of these explanations from your
Lordship, so honourable to the Princess of
Wales, and so just to yourself, the public
will be satisfied, that justice has
pletely obtained. I have the honour to be,


attempting to take her to the United States, and not considering it prudent to trust her into a port of Brazil, particularly St. Salvador, as you will perceive by the enclosed letters 1, 2, and 3, I had no alternative but burning her, which I did on the 31st ult. after receiving all the prisoners and their baggage, which was very tedious work, only having one boat left (out of eight),


Commodore Bainbridge to the Secretary of and not one boat left on board the Java. the Navy. -On blowing up the frigate, I proceed. ed to this place, where I have landed all the prisoners to return to England, and there remain until regularly exchanged, and not serve in their professional capacities in any place or in any manner whatever against the United States of America, until the exchange shall be regularly effected.—I have the honour to be, &c. W. BAINBRIDGE.

my dear Lord, your Lordship's obliged
and obedient servant,


To the Right Honourable the Earl
of Moira, K. G. &c. &c.

St. Salvador, Jan. 3. Sir, I have the honour to inform you, that on the 29th ult. at two p.m. in South lat. 13. 06. and West long. 38. about ten leagues distance from the coast of Brazil, I fell in with and captured His Britannic Majesty's frigate Java, of 49 guns, and upwards of 400 men, commanded by Capt. Lambert, a very distinguished officer. The action lasted one hour and 55 minutes, in which time the enemy was completely dismasted, not having a spar of any kind standing. The loss on board the Constitution was nine killed and 25 wounded.

House of Representatives, Wednesday, Feb. 24. The following message was received from The enemy had 60 killed and 101 wounded the President of the United States, which, certainly (among the latter Capt. Lambert after being read, was referred to the Commortally); but by the enclosed letter writ-mittee of Foreign Relations:

ten on board the ship (by one of the officers
of the Java), and accidentally found, it is
evident that the enemy's wounded must
have been much greater than as above
stated, and who must have died of their
wounds previously to their being removed.
The letter states 60 killed and 170 wound-
ed. For further details of the action, I
beg to refer to the extracts from my journal.
The Java had, in addition to her own crew,
upwards of 100 supernumerary officers and
seamen, to join the British ships of war in
the East Indies; also Lieut.-General
lop, appointed to the command of Bombay,
Major Wilke, and Captain Wood, of his
Staff, and Captain Marshall, Master and
Commander of the British navy, going to
the East Indies to take the command of a
sloop of war there.Should I attempt
to do justice, by representation, to the brave
and good conduct of all my officers and
crew during the action, I should fail in the
attempt; therefore, suffice it to say, that
the whole of their conduct was such as to
merit my highest encomiums. I beg leave
to recommend the officers particularly to
the notice of Government, as also the un-
fortunate seamen who were wounded, and
the families of those brave men who fell in
the action.The great distance from our
own coast, and the perfect wreck we made
the enemy's frigate, forbade every idea of

To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States.

I lay before Congress copies of a Proclamation of the British Lieutenant Governor of the island of Bermuda, which has appeared under circumstances leaving no doubt of its authenticity. It recites a British Order in Council of the 26th of October last, providing for the supply of the British West Indies, and other colonial possessions, by a trade under special licenses, and is accompanied by circular inHis-structions to the Colonial Governors, which confines licensed importations from the ports of the United States to the ports of the Eastern States exclusively.The Government of Great Britain had already introduced into her commerce during a war, a system which at once violated the rights of other nations, and, resting on a mass of forgery and perjury unknown to other times, was making an unfortunate progress in undermining those principles of morality and religion which are the best foundation of national happiness.-The policy now proclaimed to the world introduces into her mode of warfare a system equally distinguished by the deformity of its features and the depravity of its character; having for its object to dissolve the ties of allegiance, and the sentiments of loyalty in the adversary nation, and to seduce


and separate its component parts the one and thus dispose it to measures of justice from the other.The general tendency and equity, which he almost always deof these demoralizing and disorganizing manded in vain.When the North of contrivances will be reprobated by the civi- Europe saw itself menaced with a new fatal lized and Ghristian world; and the insult- war, the King, after doing every thing that ing attempt on the virtue, the honour, the depended upon him to avert the storm, patriotism, and the fidelity of our brethren took the part which the intermediate posiof the Eastern States, will not fail to call tion of his States that admitted not of neuforth all their indignation and resentment, trality, and a certain perspective of the deand to attach more and more all the States structive measures that awaited them on to that happy union and constitution against the part of France, if he refused what was which such insidious and malignant artifices demanded of him, imperiously prescribed. are directed.The better to guard, ne- He resigned himself to the sovereign envertheless, against the effect of individual gagements, out of all proportion to the ability of the country, to which he found cupidity and treachery, and to turn the corrupt projects of the enemy against herself, himself obliged to acquiesce by the treaty I recommend to the consideration of Con- of alliance of the 24th February, and the gress the expediency of an effectual prohi- conventions which accompanied it, in the bition of any trade whatever, by citizens or hope of having obtained for Prussia solid ecessity; effica inhabitants of the United States, under support, and in case of nece special licenses, whether relating to per- cious succour, of which, after so many resons or ports, and, in aid thereof, a prohi- verses, she daily felt the greater necessity; bition of all exportation from the United and that the French Government, answerStates in foreign bottoms, few of which are ing the fidelity with which the King pur-: actually employed, whilst multiplied coun- posed to fulfil his obligations, would, on terfeits of their flags and papers are cover- its side, fulfil with the same exactness the ing and encouraging the navigation of the obligation it had contracted with him. Unhappy experience proved to him but too enemy. JAMES MADISON. soon, that such were not the intentions of that Government. Whilst the King furnished the number of troops agreed upon, to form the stipulated auxiliary corps : whilst that these troops shed their blood in the cause of France, with a bravery to which the Emperor himself has not refused to do justice; whilst that in the interior. of the country they bore up, by extraordinary efforts, against furnishing the enormous supplies, and loans of all kinds, which the wants of the troops, who did not cease to inundate it, required. France fulfilled uot, in any manner, the obligations contracted, the exact accomplishment of which could alone prevent the entire ruin of the country and its inhabitants.—It was stipulated that the garrison of Glogau should be provisioned at the expense of France, reckoning from the date of the treaty, and those of Gustrin atid Stettin, after the entire payment of the contributions; the.latter was paid, and even more, in the month of May, in last year, by the deliveries which had been made-nevertheless Prussia remained charged with provisioning these three garrisons, without any representations being able to effect what justice and the letter of the treaty demanded. We had flattered ourselves, at least, according to the recent promise of His MaFrench Government a sincere confidence,jesty the Emperor, the country round those

February 24, 1813.

The undersigned Chancellor of State has just received an order from the King to lay before his Excellency Count de Marsau, Minister Plenipotentiary from His Majesty the Emperor of the French, King of Italy, &c. &c. the following:-The King, in all his political conduct since the peace of Tilsit, had principally in view to give and ensure to his people a state of tranquillity which might gradually enable them to recover from the numberless misfortunes and losses which they had just suffered, For this purpose he fulfilled with exactness, as far as his means permitted him, the engagements which he had been forced to by that peace. He has supported with resignation the arbitrary exactions, the spoliation of every description of which the provinces did not cease to be the object; the enormous charges with which they were loaded. He neglected nothing in order to establish between him and the

Note of the Prussian Government annexed
to the Report of the French Minister for
Foreign Affairs.

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places, as the Prussian territory, would ject. Besides, General de Krusemarck is henceforth have been sheltered from all charged to deliver a note to the Minister, forced requisitions, but at the very mo- which will enlarge more upon so many obment when we delivered ourselves up to jects, which clearly proves, that the French this hope, the Commandants received a Government, in holding in no consideration formal order, to take for ten leagues round the principal stipulations of the treaty of the fortresses, every thing of which they alliance in favour of Prussia, which, ne believed they stood in want, which was vertheless, formed so many essential con executed with all the violence which was ditions of it, and without which the latter foreseen. It was agreed, that sums ad- would have, whatever might have been the vanced by Prussia for supplies of all kinds, consequence, subscribed to the conditions should be settled every three months, and imposed on her, has itself freed her from the balance paid down at the end of the those reciprocal obligations contained in it. campaign. But she could not obtain that No person is ignorant of the situation in even these accounts should be examined, which Prussia now finds herself, in conand when the balance amounted to very sequence of these circumstances, and genelarge sums, of which she was every mo- rally of the events of the Autumn and Winment to furnish the proofs, when at the end ter, abandoned to herself, without hope of of the year it was 94,000,000 of francs, the efficacious support on the part of a power, most lively representations were not able to whom she was bound, and from whom to procure payment of a single account, al- she did not even obtain the objects of the though the King had, for the moment, confined his demand to a sum less than half the latter to grant her; seeing two-thirds most strict justice, which she only wished the urgent, absolute, and indispensable ne- of her provinces exhausted, and their incessity for which had been demonstrated by habitants reduced to despair, what remains the most powerful evidence. The clause for her, except taking council of herself, of the treaty of alliance which ensured the raising and supporting herself? It is in neutrality of a part of Silesia, could not, the love and courage of his people, and in under the circumstances which since oc- the generous interest of a great power, curred, take effect, unless Russia, on her which compassionates his situation, that part, acquiesced in it, and this acqui- the King has determined to seek the means escence, supposed of necessity, that they of getting out of it, and of restoring to his should treat about this object. Neverthe- Monarchy the independence which can less the Emperor caused it to be declared, alone ensure its future prosperity.that he would not consent that the King Majesty has just taken the measures which -His should send any one to the Emperor Alex- so grave circumstances exact to join himander for this purpose, and in thus ren- self by a strict alliance with His Majesty dering the stipulation entirely illusory, in the Emperor of all the Russias. He is point of fact, withdrew from, annulled it. persuaded that France, as well as all EuFresh attempts were made against the rope, will appreciate the powerful motives King's incontestable rights, by the arbitra- which have decided his measures. ry dispositions indulged in, with respect to These measures tend in their final result the corps of Prussian troops in Pomerania, but to a peace, founded under General Bulow, by calling it to join able and calculated to augment its solidity. upon bases equitthe Duke of Belluno's division, and in It has always been, and will constantly replacing it previously to having obtained His main, the most ardent of the King's wishes, Majesty's consent, under the orders of that and if Providence blesses his efforts, His Marshal, as well as by the prohibition of Majesty will find himself at the height of all recruiting whatever in the Prussian happiness in being able to contribute în states, occupied by the French troops, rendering benefit to humanity. The unwhich was published by order of the Vice- dersigned has the honour to renew to his roy of Italy, without informing His Ma- Excellency Couut de St. Marsau, the asjesty of it. Never, undoubtedly, was the surances of his high consideration. sovereignty of a friendly Prince, attacked in a more terrible manner.(Signed) HARDENBURG. -It is unne Breslaw, 16th March. cessary to recapitulate the melancholy details which have lately appeared, they are perfectly known to your Excellency and the Duke of Bassano, by the numerous remonstrances of which they have been the sub

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Paris, March 27, 1813. MONSIEUR LE Duc,-I have just receiv


contribution: she was preparing to pay remainder, when clouds arose between Russia and France, and when the immense preparations of those two powers did not any longer permit her to doubt of the war about to be kindled in the North. The King, faithful to his principle of saving, at any price, the national existence, judging of the future by the past, felt that he had every thing to fear from France. He sacrificed his affections, and concluded with her a treaty of alliance. At the epoch of the conclusion of the treaty, before the news could have reached Berlin, the French troops entered Pomerania and the Marche Elcetroale. The King with grief saw that no attention was paid to his frank and loyal intentions. They would obtain by force what it appeared impossible to obtain by negotiations. Agents of Prussia, frightened by the menacing attitude of France, had signed at Paris separate conventions, which contained conditions extremely burdensome, relative to the provisioning and wants of the Grand Army. The French Government, instructed respecting the mediocrity of our resources, foresaw a refusal,-prepared to gain the King's consent by the appearance of force, and deceived itself. His Majesty ratified these conventions, although he felt the difficulty of fulfilling them; he reckon

ed an order from my Sovereign to lay before you the following:-The propositions which I have anteriorly had the honour of submitting to you were of a nature to merit a reply equally prompt as decisive. The progress of the Russian arms in the centre of the monarchy, does not permit Prussia any longer to prolong that state of uncertainty in which she is. On one side the Emperor of Russia, united to the King by bonds of personal friendship, offers Prussia, in this decisive moment, the support of his power, and the advantages of his friendship; on the other, his Majesty the Emperor of the French persists in repulsing an Ally who has sacrificed himself in his cause, and disdains even to explain himself upon the motives of his silence. For a length of time France has violated, in every point, the treaties which connected her with Prussia. Not contented with having dictated at Tilsit a peace, equally hard and humiliating, she has not even permitted her to enjoy the trifling advantages which that treaty seemed to allow her. She has made use of odious pretexts to shake to their foundations the fortune of the State, and those of individuals. Since that epoch, Prussia has been treated as a conquered country, and oppressed by a yoke of iron. The French armies remained in it contrary

to the terms of the treaty, and lived at dis-ed upon the devotion of Prussians, and he

cretion in it during eighteen months; exor-
bitant and arbitrary contributions were im-
posed upon her; her commerce was ruined
by obliging her to adopt the continental
system; French garrisons were placed in
the three fortresses of the Oder; the coun-
try was
bliged to defray the expense of
their appointments; in short, by the treaty
of Bayonne, the property of widows and
orphans was disposed of, in manifest con-
tradiction to the stipulations of the treaty
of peace; every thing announced that no
sort of regard would be kept with an un-
fortunate and oppressed state. In this state
of things, peace became an illusory benefit.
The King groaned under the enormous
weight which oppressed his subjects. He
flattered himself with vanquishing, by the
force of condescension and sacrifices, an
animosity the effects of which he knew, but
of whose principle he was ignorant. He
gave himself up to the hope of sparing his
people greater misfortunes, in fulfilling
scrupulously his engagements towards
France, and in carefully avoiding, every
thing which could give her offence. By
extraordinary and unheard-of efforts, Prus-
sia succeeded in paying two-thirds of the

hoped that by defining the extent of our sacrifices, he would preserve his people from arbitrary requisitions, and their fatal consequences. Experience did not justify this hope. Whilst Prussia exhausted all her means to pour into the magazines the stipulated products, the French armies. lived at the expense of individuals. At the same time were exacted the fulfilment of the treaty, and the daily consumption of the troops. The sacred property of the inhabitants was taken away by main force, without rendering the least account of it, and Prussia lost by these acts of violence above 70,000 horses, and 20,000 carriages.

-Notwithstanding all these shackles, the King, faithful to his system, fulfilled with religious faith all the engagements he had made. The supplies were successfully realized, the stipulated contingent advanced; nothing was omitted to prove the loyalty of our conduct. France only replied to this devotion by pretensions always new, and believed herself able to dispense, on her side, with fulfilling the stipulations of the treaty which fell to her charge. She constantly refused to examine the accounts for supplies furnished, although she had en

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