« AnteriorContinuar »
ed an order from my Sovereign to lay be contribution : she was preparing to pay the fore you the following:- The propositions remainder, when clouds arose between which I have anteriorly had the 'honour of Russia and France, and when the immense submitting to you were of a nature to merit preparations of those two powers did not a reply equally prompt as decisive. The any longer permit her to doubt of the war progress of the Russian arms in the centre about to be kindled in the North. The of the monarchy, does not permit Prussia King, faithful to his principle of saving, at any longer to prolong that state of uncer- any price, the national existence, judging tainty in which she is. On one side the of the future by the past, felt that he had Emperor of Russia, united to the King by every thing to fear from France. He sacribonds of personal friendship, offers Prus- ficed his affections, and concluded with her sia, in this decisive moment, the support a treaty of alliance. At the epoch of the of his power, and the advantages of his conclusion of the treaty, before the news friendship; on the other, his Majesty the could have reached Berlin, the French Emperor of the French persists in repuls- | troops entered Pomerania and the Marche ing an Ally who has sacrificed himself in Elcetroale. The King with grief saw that his cause, and disdains even to explain no attention was paid to his frank and loyal hinself upon the motives of his silence. intentions. They would obtain by force For a length of time France has violated, what it appeared impossible to obtain by in every point, the treaties which connect negotiations. Agents of Prussia, frightened her with Prussia. Not contented with ed by the menacing attitude of France, had having dictated at Tilsit a peace, equally signed at Paris separate conventions, which hard and humiliating, she has not even per contained conditions extremely burdensome, mitted her to enjoy the trifling advantages relative to the provisioning and wants of the which that treaty seemed to allow her. She Grand Army. The French Government, has made use of odious pretexts to shake to instructed respecting the mediocrity of our their foundations the fortune of the State, resources, foresaw a refusal,—prepared to and those of individuals. Since that epoch, gain the King's consent by the appearance Prussia has been treated as a conquered of force, and deceived itself. His Majesty country, and oppressed by a yoke of iron. ratified these conventions, although he felt The French armies remained in it contrary the difficulty of fulfilling them; he reckonto the terms of the treaty, and lived at dis- ed upon the devotion of Prussians, and he cretion in it during cighteen months; exor- hoped that by defining the extent of our sabitant and arbitrary contributions were im- crifices, he would preserve his people from posed upon her; her commerce was ruined arbitrary requisitions, and their faial conby obliging her to adopt the continental sequences. Experience did out justify this system; French garrisons were placed in hope. Whilst Prussia .exhausted all her the three fortresses of the Oder; the coun- means to pour into the magazines the stiputry was obliged to defray the expense of lated products, the French armies. lived at their appointments; in short, by the treaty the expense of individuals. At the same of Bayonne, the property of widows and time. were exacted the fulfilment of the orphans was disposed of, in manifest con- treaty, and the daily consumption of the tradiction to the stipulations of the treaty troops. The sacred property of the inhaof peace; every thing announced that no bitants was taken away by main force, sort of regard would be kept with an un- without rendering the least account of it, fortunate and oppressed state. In this state and Prussia lost by these acts of violence of things, peace became an illusory benefit. above 70,000 horses, and 20,000 carriages. The King groaned under the enormous -Notwithstanding all these shackles, the weight which oppressed his subjects. He King, faithful to his system, fulfilled with flattered himself with vanquishing, by the religious faith all the engagements he had force of condescension and sacrifices, an made. The supplies were successfully reanimosity the effects of which he knew, but alized, the stipulated contingent advanced; of whose principle he was ignorant. He nothing was omitted to prove the loyalty of gave himself up to the hope of sparing his our conduct. France only replied to this people greater misfortunes, in fulfilling devotion by pretensions always new, and scrupulously his engagements towards believed herself able to dispense, on her France, and in carefully avoiding, every side, with fulfilling the stipulations of the thing which could give her offence. By treaty which fell to her charge. She conextraordinary and unheard-of efforts, Prus- stantly relused to examine the accounts for sia succeeded in paying two-thirds of the supplies furnished, although she had entered into a formal engagement to settle and distant promises. Besides, as if it was them every three months. The Military not sufficient to violate the most positive Convention ensured to the Emperor, till a treaties, new proceedings took place to ennew arrangement with Prussia, possession lighten Prussia respecting the Emperor's of the fortresses of Glogau, Stettin, and intentions, and what she had a right to exCustrin ; but the provisioning of the first of pect from him. The King seeing one part those places was, from the date of signing of his provinces invaded, and the other methat convention, to have been at the ex- naced, without being able to rely upon the pense of France ; and the others, from the assistance of the French armies, obliged to day on which the King should have fulfilled reinforce his own, and the ordinary way his new engagements respecting the dis- being tedious' and insufficient, his Majesty charge of the contribution. The King, in addressed an appeal to the young Prussians acquiescing in this article, had already gi- who wished to range themselves under his ven France proofs of his condescension, in colours. This awakened in every heart the renouncing the stipulations of 1808 ; ac- desire of serving the country. A great numcording to which Glogau was to be given up ber of volunteers were preparing to leave to Prussia, as soon as half the contribution Berlin for Breslau, when it pleased the should be paid. The new treaty was not Viceroy to interdict all recruiting, and the better observed by France than that which departure of the volunteers, in the provinpreceded it. The provisioning of Glogau, ces occupied by the French 'troops. This and that of the other fortresses, caused by prohibition was issued in the most perempthe Convention, and the discharge of tory manner, and without acquainting the the contributions already realized in the King with it. Any attempt so directly month of May last year, notwithstanding aimed at the rights of Sovereignty, excited the most pressing representations, remain in the heart of his Majesty, and those of at the expense of Prussia to this day. The his faithful subjects, a just indignation. Convention stipulated nothing respecting At the same time, and whilst the fortresses the fortresses of Pillau and Spandau; they, on the Oder ought for a long time to have in consequence, were to remain occupied by been provisioned at the expense of France, Prussian troops; the French troops, how- after the Emperor had formally declared in ever, entered them by a sort of military an audience given to Hatzfeldt, that he had surprise, and maintained themselves in interdicted the French authorities from mak- . them. Whilst the weight of Prussia's ing any kind of requisitions in the States of expenses was indefinitely augmented- the King, the Governors of these fortresses whilst she proved, that, after having paid received orders to take by main force, for a her contribution, her advances were enor- circle of ten leagues, every thing which mous—all kinds of assistance were persist was requisite for their defence and provisioned in being refused her: all her demands ing. This arbitrary and unjust order, and were answered by a contemptuous silence, which they did not even take the trouble of and incessantly demanding fresh sacrifices : acquainting the King, was executed in all the inconceivable efforts of a burdened na! | its extent, in defiance of the sacred title of lion appeared to be considered as 'nothing. property, and with details of violence which At the end of the preceding year, the ad - it would be difficult to depict. Notwithvances by Prussia-ainounted to 94,000,000 standing all the reasons which the King had of francs. The accounts were in as good for breaking with France, he yet wished to order as they could be, considering the try the effect of negotiations. He informed constant refusal of the French Authorities the Emperor Napoleon, that he would send to settle them agreeably to the treaty. His a confidential person to-the Emperor of Majesty never ceased to represent, through Russia, in order to engage him to acknowhis agents, that it became urgent to do jus- ledge the neutrality of that part of Silesia tice to his demands, that his exhausted which France had acknowledged. It was States could no longer support the French the only means which remained to the King, armies. The King, for the moment, con- abandoned, at least, for a moment, by fined himself to demanding an account re- France, for having a sure asylum, and not specting these advances, candidly declaring being placed in the cruel situation of leavthat he could not-answer for events in case ing his States. The Emperor haughtily of a refusal. - This language, equally just pronounced against this step, and did not as clear; these demands, founded on the even deign to explain himself upon the pronost sacred titles, remained without re-positions which accompanied that overture: ply, and only produced' vague assurances in such a state of things, the King's decis
sion could not long remain doubtful. He on the 27th of March.What is most had for years sacrificed every thing for the deserving of serious consideration may be preservation of his political existence : now reduced to what follows.---That Prussia France compromised that existence, and did solicited and concluded an alliance with nothing to protect it. Russia can aggravate France in 1812, because the French arhis misfortunes, and generously offers to mies had approached nearer to the Prussian protect him. The King cannot hesitate :- States than the Russian armies.-Prussia faithful to his principles and his duties, he declares in 1813, that she violates her joins his arms to those of the Emperor Alex. treaties, because the Russian armies have ander, changing his system without chang- approached nearer to her States than the ing his object. He hopes, in breaking French armies. Posterity will judge, with France, and attaching himself to Rus- whether such conduct be faithful, and wor. sia, to obtain, by an honourable peace, or thy of a great Prince, conformable to equiby force of arms, the only object of his ty and sound policy.--It will always do wishes--the independence of his people justice to the perseverance of your Cabinet the benefits which will result from it, and in its principles. --In 1792, when the inheritance of his fathers, the half of France was inwardly agitated by a Revowhich has been ravished from himn. The lution, and from without, attacked by a King will adhere, with all his power, to formidable enemy, appeared like to sink, every proposition conformable to the com- Prussia made war on her.Three years mon interests of the Sovereigns of Europe. afterwards, and at the moment when He is earnestly desirous that they may lead France was triumphant over the coalesced to a state of things, in which treaties may powers, Prussia abandoned her allies, she no longer be simple truces—where power left the side of the combiuation together becomes the guarantee of justice, and with its fortune, and the King of Prussia where each returning with his natural rights, was the first of the Sovereigns who had may no longer be tormented in all the points taken up arms against France, that acof his existence, by the abuse of power.- knowledged the Republic.----Four years This is, M. Le Duc, what I am charged to had scarcely elapsed (in 1799), when state for your Excellency's information. Be France felt the vicissitudes of war; some pleased to give an account of it to his Ma- batiles had been lost in Switzerland and jesty the Emperor. Europe has seen with Italy; the Duke of York had landed in astonishinent the long resignation of a na- Holland, and the Republic was threatened tion distinguished in the annals of history by both from the North and the South ; Forits brilliant courage, and its noble perseve- tune had changed, and Prussia had changrance.- Now, directed by the most sacred ed with her.- -But the English were motives, there is no person among us, who driven from Holland; the Russians were is not determined to sacrifice every consider- beaten at Zurich; victory again caine un. ation to the great interests of his throne, der our colours in Italy, and Prussia bethe country, and the independence of Eu- came the Friend of France. In 1805, rope ; no one who will not think himself Austria took up arms: she carried her happy in perishing for this noble end, and arms to the Danube ; she took possession in defending his house.--I have orders of Bavaria; whilst the Russian troops immediately to proceed to the King, my passed the Niemen, and advanced towards august Master, with Prince Hatzfeldt, his the Vistula.—The union of three great Privy Councillor of State Begnelin, and the powers, and their immense preparations persons attached to these different missions. appeared to presage nought but defeat to I have the honour to beg your Excellency France. Prussia could not hesitate an into forward me the necessary passports for stant ; she armed herself; she signed the
I hasten to renew to you, treaty of Berlin; and the manes of Fredeat the same time, the assurance of my most ric the Second were called upon to witness high consideration.
the eternal hatred which she vowed against (Signed) KRUSEMARCK. France. When her Minister, sent to His
Majesty to dictate the law to him, had arREPLY TO THE Note or M. THE BARON DE rived in Moravia, the Russians had just KRUSEMARCK.
lost the battle of Austerlitz, and it was Paris, April 1, 1813. owing to the generosity of the French that M. Baron, I have laid before His Im- they were allowed to return into their own perial and Royal Majesty, the Note which country. Prussia immediately tore the you did me the honour of addressing to me treaty of Berlin, concluded only six weeks
before, abjured the celebrated oath of junction at Breslau of men designated as Potsdam; betrayed Russia as she had be chiefs of the disturbers, and as the princitrayed France; and entered into fresh en- pal instigators of the war of 1806; the gagements with us.
But from these eter- daily communications established between nal Huctuations in politics, proceeded a real your Court and the head-quarters of the anarchy in the public opinion in Prussia ; enemy, had for a long time left no doubt of an exultation took place in men's minds the resolutions of your Court; when, Mavyhich the Prussian Government were not ron, I received your note of the 27th of able to direct; they supported it, and, in March, and it has therefore caused no sur1806, declared war against France, at a prise. Prussia wishes, it is said, to recomoment when it was their best interest to ver the inheritance of her ancestors : but keep up a good understanding with her. we may ask her, if, when she speaks of Prussia þeing entirely conquered, saw her- losses which her false policy has caused her self, above her own hopes, admitted to to suffer, she has likewise made some acsign, at Tilsit, a peace by which she requisitions to put into the scale: if, among ceived every thing, and gave nothing. -- those acquisitions, there be none which she In 1809, the war with Austria broke out;
owes to her faithless policy? It is, that she Prussia was again going to change her sys- owes Silesia to the abandonment of a French tem; but the first military events leaving army in the walls of Prague; and all her no doubts of the definitive result of the acquisitions in Germany, to the violation of campaign, Prussia was governed by pru- the laws and interests of the Germanic dence, and did not dare to declare herself. Body.- -Prussia talks of her desire of ob
In 1811, the preparations made by taining a peace founded on a solid basis ; but Russia threatening Europe with a new war, how is it possible to reckon on a solid
peace the geographical situation of Prussia did with a power which believes herself justinot permit her to remain an indifferent fied when she breaks her engagements acspectatress of the events which were about cording to the caprices of fortune. His taking place : and you, M. le Baron, were , Majesty prefers a declared enemy to a friend charged so early as the month of March in always ready to abandon him. I will the same year, to solicit the alliance of France: not carry these observations any farther; I and it is useless for me to recall to your re- shall content myself with asking, what membrance what passed at that period. It would an enlightened Statesman, and a is useless for me to repeat either your reite. friend to his country, have done, who, in rated instances of your warm solicitudes. thought, placing himself at the helm of afHis Majesty, remembering what was past, fairs of Prussia, from the day when the reat first hesitated what part he should take. volution in France broke out, would have But he thought that the King of Prussia, en conducted himself according to the princi. lightened by experience, was at length be ples of a sound and moral policy. At come sensible of the versatile policy of your present, M. Baron, what remains for Cabinet. He felt himself obliged for the Prussia ? She has done nothing for Europe; steps which it had taken at St. Petersburgh she has done nothing for her ancient Ally; to prevent the rupture. It was, besides, she will do nothing for peace. A power, contrary to his justice and his heart to de- whose treaties are only conditional, cannot clare war, merely for the considerations of be an useful mediator; she guarantees nopolitical convenience. He yielded to his thing; she is nothing but a subject of dispersonal sentiments towards your Sovereign, cussion; she is not even a barrier. The and consented to make an alliance with him. finger of Providence has shewn itsell' in the So long as the chances of war were favour- events of this winter; it has produced thein able to us, your Court shewed itself faith- to unmask false friends, and mark the faithful; but scarcely had the premature rigours ful ones; it has given his Majesty power of the winter attacked our armies on the sufficient to ensure the triumph of the one, Niemen, when the defection of General and the chastisement of the others. Í D'Yorck rewakened suspicions but too well have the honour to transmit you the
passfounded. The equivocal conduct of your ports which you have requested of me. Court in so weighty a circumstance; the (Signed) THE DUKE DE BASSANO. departure of the King for Breslau ; the treachery of General Bulow, who opened to the
NORTHERN WAR. enemy the passage of the Nether Oder; the public Ordinances, to excite a turbulent LONDON, Foreign Office, April 10, 1813. and factious youth to take up arms; the Dispatches of which the following are Co
pies, have been received by Viscount placed a soldier within its walls; and has,
-Regnier's corps, as I conjectured, re-
tired behind the Austrians, by Rawa, to Referring to my dispatch from St. Pe- this place; they were here overtaken by tersburgh, by the messenger Lyell, I have General Wiuzingerode, who attacked them now the honour to acquaint your Lordship, with inferior force, and put them to flight, that having begun my journey, upon the taking prisoner the Saxon General Rostitz, Emperor's invitation to join him at head three colonels, forty-seven other officers, quarters on the 12th of February, I reached fifteen hundred rank and file, with ewo coRiga in forty-eight hours, and arrived in lours and seven cannon. The remainder of this town before day-break on the ed of this corps pursued their retreat in the diMarch. The Emperor received me in rection of Glogau, probably not exceeding his accustomed most gracious manner, and, five or six thousand inen. It remains for in an audience immediately after the pa- me to offer my congratulations on the signal rade, was pleased to state the outline of his success which has hitherto attended the recent operations. In the first place, the great and unremitting exertions of the Emresult of his Imperial Majesty's coinmuni- peror, who, in the course of two months, cations to the Court of Berlin, made on his at this season, has continued the pursuit of first arrival at Wilna, has been the conclu- the enemy from Wilna to the Oder; and sion of a treaty of peace and alliance, of- has united to his own zealous endeavours, fensive and defensive, with that power; of Prussia, and of the whole population of
the decided and hearty support of the King The Prince Kutusoff Smolensko, and the Chan- his dominions, who seem most solicitous to cellor Baron Hardenberg--- In pursuance emulate the Russians in patriotic donations, of this renovation of amicable relations, the as well as in personal service.--I undermost active combined military operations
stand the Polish government, which withare already in progress.
- This day a re
drew from Warsaw under Prince Poniaport has been received of the actual
towski, went, in the first instance, to tion of Berlin by the forces of his Imperial Petrikaw, and a part with the Prince are Majesty, under the Aid-de-Camp-General gone to Czentochaw, where it is said some Chernicheff. The head-quarters of the force has been assembled: and I have also Russian army are established in this central understood that the Polish part of Regposition, to give the necessary time for re- nier's corps, after the affair of Kalisch, ceiving recruits and convalescents, who are took that direction. A Russian corps is daily arriving, and for supplying necessaries stationed to the southward of Warsaw, to to troops who have been engaged in a cam
obserye their motions. paign of an unexainpled and uninterrupted series of military operations and marches
Imperial Head-Quarters, Kalish, for eleven months. - This pause will,
March 26, 1813. However, be of short duration. Nothing My Lord,-In my dispatches of the 6th can be more striking than the contrast be- instant, I had the honour of reporting my tween the march of the Russian army, and arrival at this place, and of detailing to the conciliatory proceedings of the Empe- your Lordship the progress which the Em. ror, with that of Buonaparte, and the troops peror had made in his arrangements, and under the French Generals, The most in preparations for the campaign, together rigid and correct discipline has been ob- with the gigantic steps which had already served in the Duchy, as well as in Prussia. been taken in carrying on the military ope
His Imperial Majesty, though in pos-rations already begun. These reports insession of the keys of Warsaw, has not
(To be continued.)
Published by R. BAGSHAW, Brydges-Street, Covent-Garden.
LONDON: Printed by J. M'Creery, Black Horse-Court, Fleet-street.