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to the said wicked work . . . because . . aprehended a Gum
and prejudice against the town of Tayne upon the accompt
of uncle Collonel Robt. McKay .. crave remeid ... [These
chapmen, pushing trade into the outlying glens and moors
with packs on their backs, were a thriving class.
they meet Elgin merchants at a Chanonry market, and con-
tract to give hides and skins which they get in payment for
goods through the country. We see again the disorder of
that time. In Nos. 215 and 495 and others, we have seen
the minute regulation of, and interference with, trade.
Trade was restricted by the privileges of the burghs over

districts.
No. 522, 1457.-Photo in Tain of Latin Charter in Inverness.]

James, &c., We for the praise and honour of God
Almighty and the blessed St Duthus have approved . . con-
firmed the infeftments and gifts . . by our predecessors .
to . . . the Collegiate Church of Tayne . . . and those
dwelling in the town and immunity ... all the liberties and
pivileges . . . . Yet so that our present confirmation do not
cause prejudice for the future to our burghers of Inverness
in respect of the infeftments granted to them . . by our
predecessors .... At Inverness 1457 ... This is a true
copy ... produced . . 1564. .. Mr Jacobus Makgill.
[Inverness had claimed exclusive right of trade, and tried
to prevent shipping at Tain, which appealed to James II.
This rather doubtful deliverance of his did not prevent
Inverness from renewing the contest. Trade was further

restricted by the privileges of burgesses:
No. 523, 1682. --Suspension ; parts torn out.] . . . Donald

McEan vic Alister in Culich in Ardross complaner . . is
chargit be pretendit lres of horning . at instance of
Alexr. Ross, Dean of Gild of . Tayne, on behalf of ..
haill burgesses yrof, to desist .. from .. any privat mercats,
fairs, stalling, packing, peilling, buying or selling of her-
ring, salmond, cloath, yron, hemp, or oyr. merchandise
wair and staple guids . to the hurt and prejudice of
. . . Tayne ... under paine of rebellione ... have caused
denunce said complener rebell .. apprehend .. incarcerat in
the tolbooth of Tayn ... most wrongously . . . In this same
matter ... in 1675 . application made of suspension .
due intimation ... never discussed ... said letters ought ..
to be suspended . . . and said magistrates . . punished .
because any merchandising yt ever complener had was onlie
small wair at publict mercat or wtin the libertie of our
burgh of Fortrose qrof complener is burges as his .. ticket
evidenced ... and he has constant residence . . Delny ..8
miles fully from . . Tayn .. testified under the baron . . his
hand . . traiding wtin the lands yrof only . . [Other legal
pleas recited, and as the result] . . messenger past at com-
mand of . . suspension ... to the mercat cross of Tayn ...
summoned Alexr. Ros Dean of Gild, Walter Ross Provest,

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Jon Ros Nicolson, and Angus McCulloch bailies, to compear at Edr.

dewly relaxit the said Donald . and delyverit to ( ) procurator for . . suspender the wand of

peace as use is. [No. 524, 1684.-) Ane Dean of Gild court . . Tayne . . be

John Manson (with a bailie and 9 councillors as assessors] . : James Allan in Cromartie accused of unfree trading and wronging of the liberties of . . burgh . . confessit .. fyned £50 Scots and . . prison till he pay, and bind himself under ye payne of £100 . . not .. in tyme coming. John Urq. in Cromartie lykways accused . . sworne . deponed . . did neather buy nor sell £40 Scots worth of staple goods since the burgh of Cromartie where he lived did give up (i.e., their charter and standing as a burgh-see No. 785.] The judge referred to the Provest. [The £100 bond is given, signed by Allan and his wife, Agnes Linsey; and on another day] . . Alexr. Gray in Invercharron accusit .. of unfree traiding provin be witnesses . . fyned in threttie punds. Hew Ross in Leachclavack accusit for the lyk . . . confessit he bocht two barrels of salt and sold it out for cruikes . . fyned in £14 . . . witness . . declared both of them gave Iron and salt for turves, strae, and uther casualities for the tope of his house . . fyned ten pounds . . [Rest of paper after No. 962. There was a revolt against the exclusive trade privi.

leges of burgesses, and it was successful, for we haveNo. 525, 1685.-] Ane list of the unfree traders [20 names

given) within . . Taine and keipes oppin chopes [open shops] .. and dayly trade . . within and outwith the burgh to the great hurt and prejudice of the free men. Not only that but also possess the ghilderie loft and takis the preference of the same as if they had payed and contraktit yrfor . everie Lord's Day sitt yrin . . equaly with the persones yt payed for making up the said loft. [24 burgesses signing! craves . . dean of Gild order the said loft and let ilk man sitt yrin according to yr pay . . and removal of the .. unfree traders ... [On the other hand, the burghs had trouble with

monopolies and gifts by the King :No. 526, 1688.--MS. circular letter to Royal Burghs as to the

meeting of Convention of Burghs of that year-19 paragraphs; par. 2:--) Item the burgh of Edr. to report their dilligence in stopping any gift that shall happen to be presented to the Exchequer in favour of any person monopolie or oyr. gift .. to the prejudice of ye burrows, and that yr agent advance any money necessar for stopping yrof. [Par. 3—] The agent to report .. anent ane act .. for taking off

ye 4 lib. imposit upon the tun of french wyne and Butt of Spanish wyne exacted be the deceist James Somervell be vertue of his gift in all ye royall burrows . . and now be these that has yt gift . . . . Lykeways for getting the tacksmen, collectors and other servents . . majesties customes dis

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charged [forbidden to trade during the tyme of yr charge. [Par. 84] . . anent the suspension . . against Peter Brans who charged .. horning .. severall burghs ... upon his gift upon the accompt of .. selling playing cairds that were not made be him [i.e., Peter bad got a monopoly of the making of cards, and was enforcing it.] .. Petition given in be the burgh of Kilreny craveing to be expunged out of the burrows roll and frie of all bygone burdens . . most considerable inhabitants . . to compear . . and answer such interrogators

a clear discovery whether they ought to continue

[Par. 61 . . Collection towards building of the bridge of Dumbarton agent . . take security . . shall be applyed

[Par. 9—] Ilk burgh to give ane exact list to the agent, of such burgesses of frie burghs . . adjacent that are pairtners in ships belonging to inhabitants of burghs of regality and barronie and other unfree places and does not load and liver at ports of frie royall burghs . . agent to raise .. horning against .. transgressors . . fynes of 500 merks

fynes of 500 merks . . [Another restriction and privilege getting broken down, and, strangely, by burgesses themselves. But the Convention could strive also for useful reform, as in par. 10—] ... Linlithgow to report . . what burghs . . not conformed to the standart by taking from Linlithgow ane sett of measures for bear and meall conforme to .. act of Convention 1683—[see No. 432. In par. 15 is a grant of 500 merks to Renfrew to rebuild the tolbooth; and in par. 16, the mean and distressed condition of Dysart. In par. 19 the total Convention dues to be raised are £5646-Tain to pay £24. The contest against trade restriction was no new one. In 1657 Tain instructed their Commissioner at the Convention] to complain against the burrow of Dornoch for not useing diligence against unfree tredderis, and in particular for Wm. Munro at Spanziedaill, as also against Weik and Thurso qrby we

are prejudged ; [and we have :No. 527, 1675.—MS. circular of Convention.] . . . To repre

sent to the Lords of Counsell the great prejudice sustained by the societie of the fishing trade through importing of all sorts of commodities—that therefor they may be restricted from importing .. but such as are necessar for preservation of the trade under £20 ilk burgh conforme to act of Convention at Dundie 1671... . Tak to consideration the decayed condition of the burgh of Forteros and to reduce them to their proportion of the taxt roll Supplication of Kintore for expunging them out of the roll of burghs. [To show how persistent were some of the questions before the Convention, a few extracts may be given from a printed copy occurring of their circular of

1777:No. 528, 1777.-] Par. III. The burgh of Edr. to report, &c.

[identical with par. 2 of 1688, No. 526.] Par. IX. ·

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Uniformity in . . reel of worsted yarn must be ...

in cuts and hesps or hanks, each bank . . 12 cuts . . each cut 120 threads exactly numbered and no more . . all ... lint-yarn or tow-yarn only .. no mixed . . Par. X.

measures to be observed in the retail of lint-seed being the Linlithgow barley measure streaked.

[The chief remaining paragraphs deal with frauds in salmon curing, with smuggling of foreign spirits and illicit distilling in the burghs. We may add extracts from one more long paper,

as it relates to trade at the end of the century in Ross-shire : No. 529, 1798.--Minute: Tain Dstrict Meeting.) . . Sheriff

produced . . minutes of the Society of Farmers established in Wester Ross . . meeting . . at Novar Inn . . subject of the Total Want of market for any kind of Grain . . within the County . . Resolved that altho' Sir Charles Ross their Representative had been instructed by a meeting at Dingwall .. 1796, and .. at Tain, 1797 .. to watch

any new Bill . . to regulate Distilleries in Scotland . . additional circumstances . As a considerable part of the Rents . . and Stipends . . paid in Bear, Oats or oatmeal .. want of a market .. prejudicial to proprietor, farmer, and clergyman

no market .. these commodities .. almost the only Staple of the Low part of the County . . Consequent Ruin if the markets . . continue stagnant .. Reasons--1st Alarm of Scarcity . . 1796 . . and great encouragement to importation

2nd . . Machinations of the great Capitalists in the Distillery Trade . . . to secure . . monopoly in grain and spirits . . 3rd . . their operations in Opening and Shutting the Ports ... to answer their purpose . Remedy .. by Stopping . . importation of grain till market . . proper level

. . Complaint of .. great Distillers in the south . inundated with spirits from the Highlands . . (A long statement as to methods of manufacture, and ascribing to the purity of Highland spirits, and asking a law to stop the use of prejudicial ingredients, and stating that if an unsupportable duty” is put on within the North Line, as the great distillers wish, there will be a renewal of smuggling and illicit stills in the “ inaccessible mountains, creeks, coves and inlets.” The paper is signed by Sheriff Donald M‘Leod, preses. of the meeting at Tain, and Sir Rodk. Mackenzie of Scatwell, preses. at Dingwall. Next take papers on

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TRAVEL, ROADS, AND COMMUNICATION. B. No. 389, 1661.-Second part.] . . In Leith for dinnar ..

wyne . . stalls for our horses £3 8s . . To the boatt at Kinghorne £3 16s . . yat night we wes in Kircaidie for dyett the provest being wt. us £3 . . In Kenua (Kennoway) £3 14s . . To the post qn he cam with the lairds halks (hawksan awkward parcel] to tak bak to Ross £3. At the ferrie of Dundie £2 7s. At Dundie for dannar and se'all uther things £4 13s. At Breachin for ane night . . £4 17s. At

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Fettercairn for wyne wt Bowmen (cattle drovers] £1 16s (good comradeship of the road] ... At Lumfannan £4 13s .. guide to Muckquill [?] 18s naiges in Muckill haveing remained 3 dayes betwixt the minstrells and servands. At Turray . . dannar . . horse. guide from Muckill £3 9s. [Rest wanting, but given in up journey, and a stray leaf of 1665 supplies these additions :-) .. Coupar for hyre of a bagage hors £1 4s . . . Kingcarden O'Neil having bidden till ij in the morning £6 7s. Mair peyit at Captayne Ellies' house £2 2s. Mair givin to litle George to carie hom the dogg £1 10s . ... Payt at alderne for horse meat in the barrons house and givin to beggars £2 3s . . . . Peyit to the hyrer yt cam wt us fra Bruntelland thrie horses £45. [We see that even at good private houses the travellers paid something Owing to the scarcity of good inns, or to accidents on the way, such houses would often be opened to

travellers. B. No. 530, 1663.-) Ane particullar accompt off qt the laird

spent in his jurnay as he came from Buchane. Item to Dod Ross for to buy him ane pair of schewes 12s . . left off drink money in Lighnett £5 16s . . in Cullen Oboyne for dinner and horses £2 16s . . at the watter off Spey at Garmath 9s .. peyit to guyd that cam with us from Garmath to Innes 4s 4d . . at Elgin when the Laird mett wt George Monro, horses and wyne £3 7s . . that nyght we wes in Nairne £4 . . at the watter off diffron [Deveron] being great 12s ... at the ferrie off Aird feire for sex horses £1 12s. Item peyit in Chanonrie for our dinner and horses and to the violer Johne Whyte . . £4 16s. At Cromartie for the twa botts yt crocit with our horses . . and ane peynt of wyne yt the laird and Dunskeith drunk £3 10s. Ane note. since the Lairds hom cumming : Item givin to the brod [for the collection) the first Sunday at Eddertoune 4s .. to the brod on Sunday at Taine 4s . . Ane paire off singl soled schewes qn the laird went to the hielands .. 12s . . givin to the smith for ane gang off schewes to the lairds horse ( ).. givin to the litle ferrie ( ).. givin at Dunrobbin to the ( ); givin to the servands and to my lords fittman £3 10s . . givin to the officeres in Dornoch qn the laird wes admittit burges £5 6s 8d . . to the ferrie . . Ospistill till Ardmoir £1 4s .. to Dod M Kenzay going to Buchane qr the lairds sister wes £2 18s .... To the broad ye Sabath day he wes in Taine 3s . . Givin in Balnagow for ane Coiling schyer 6s . . Richie Melvin for thrie gun scrowes and helping (mending] of the

Colling schyre 12s. For Elgin route, see also No. 396. B. No. 531, 1664.-Parts illegible.] . . . debursit at the laird's

goeing to Clavais burrial . . peyt at the ferrie of Inverbreakie £2 ; Left with the lass yr £1 4s ... schewes on hors yr 12s .. at Forteros for wyne and bread in Anderson's house £2 8s 60 . . to the comone stable for bread and ail to the lad and aits , . £1 16s.. to the ferie of Ardinseire ane dollor inde

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