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Ebor. Archiepiscopo, sicut metropolitano tuo, obedientiam et reverentiam deferas. Data Laterani V. idus Decembris. [Reg. Mag. Alb. Ebor., P. I. fol. 51 b.]

a For the date, see the preceding letter.

A.D. 1125 (or earlier) × 1160. Premonstratensian abbeys of Soulseat Holywood or Dercongal, Whitherne, and Tungland, and the Augustinians of S. Mary's Isle, near Kirkcudbright,-" Prioratus Sancta Maria de Trayll"-founded by Fergus of Gallowaya.

See Pref. to Chartul. of Dryburgh, pp. vi. vii.; Spottiswood's Relig. Houses, c. V., etc. Fergus became a monk of Holyrood in A.D. 1160. Soulseat, which was the mother of the Premonstratensian abbeys here men

tioned, must therefore have been founded earlier than the new Whitherne; which itself again must have been refounded not later than the refoundation of the see of Whitherne, i. e. probably not later than A.D. 1125.

A.D. 1126 x 1140a. Revival of the See of Candida Casa as a Suffragan See to York.

STUBBS, Act. Pont. Ebor.-Ordinavit [Thurstinus] tres Episcopos diversis temporibus, scil. Gaufridum Lindefarnensi, Adelwoldum Karreliolensi, Gilaldanum Candidæ Casæ, hoc est, Herwicernensis Ecclesix. [Twysd. 1720.]

Profession of Gilla-Aldan, Bishop of Candida Casa elect, to Thurstin Archbishop of York ["subiectio Episcopi Candide Casæ."]

This is usually dated A.D. 1133. But the only chronicler who mentions it, specifies the three consecrations of which he speaks to have happened "diversis temporibus ;" and the other two certainly did take place in A.D. 1133. Possibly Stubbs may only mean in

Domino et patri suo reverendo Thurstino Dei gratia Eboracensis provincie metropolitano, GILLA-ALDAN HUMILIS ELECTUS CANDIDE CASE, salutem et obedientiam. Cognovi, tam scriptis patrum autenticis quam veredicis antiquorum virorum testimoniis, quod Episcopus Candide Case ab antiquo debeat ad matrem suam Eboracensem metropolim respicere, et ei in hiis que ad Deum pertinent obtemperare. Quapropter ego Gilla-Aldan Candide Case electus sancte Eborac. Ecclesie, et tibi, Turstine, et successoribus tuis canonice. instituendis, debitam subiectionem a sanctis patribus institutam et canonicam obedientiam me amodo servaturum promitto. [Cott. MSS. Claud. B. III. fol. 22 a; Reg. Alb. Ebor., P. III. fol. 17: and in Dugd., VI. iii. 1188, 1189, no. 64.]

different months. Of course it must have followed Honorius's letter, and have preceded Thurstin's death. Its most probable date would be A.D. 1126 or 1127, according to the date to be assigned to that letter, which probably it followed at no long interval.


A.D. 1126. Christmas. London a. Cause between the Scottish Bishops and Thurstin deferred until yet another Lent.

a Thurstin, by agreement with King David and the Scottish Bishops, obtained this concession from the Pope by messengers, instead of going to Rome in person, as he was preparing to do, in conformity with the Pope's order given to himself and Bishop John of Glasgow in the previous winter (Twysd. 1719, 1720, and see below, under the Scottish

Church). The cause was evidently put off again, but no further record remains. John acted with Thurstin subsequently. He was at Roxburgh July 17, A.D. 1127, with Thurstin and King David and others (Lib. Vitæ Eccl. Dun. p. 67); and again at York in A.D. 1128, assisting Thurstin to consecrate Robert Bishop of S. Andrews.

A.D. 1131. Nov. 29. Auxerre. Pope Innocent II. to John Bishop of Glasgow a

A letter to the same effect was sent the same day (Nov. 22 in Wilkins, I. 480, by

Obey Thurstin.

INNOCENTIUS EPISCOPUS SERVUS SERVORUM DEI, venerabili fratri Johanni Glesguensi Episcopo, salutem et Apostolicam benedictionem. Predecessor noster felicis memorie Papa Paschalis, salvo siquidem Eboracensis Ecclesie iure, tibi manum consecrationis imposuit. Postmodum vero successores eius sancte recordationis Calixtus et Honorius, Romani pontifices, tibi per scripta Apostolica mandaverunt, quatinus venerabili fratri nostro Turstino] Archiepiscopo Eborac. tanquam proprio metropolitano obedientiam et reverentiam exhiberes. Quamvis autem, prout ipse asserit, ei obedire promiseris, nondum tamen id effectu prosequente complesti. Quocirca per presentia tibi scripta precipimus, ut, omni dilatione seu tergeruisatione remota, predicto fratri nostro T. Archiepiscopo humiliter pareas. Alioquin ei in sua deesse iusticia non poterimus. Data Altissiodori tertio cal. Decembris. [Reg. Alb. Ebor., P. I. fol. 52 a: and in Dugd., VI. 1187, no. 50.]

mistake) to the Scottish Bishops in general: see below, under the Scottish Church.

A.D. 1133. August 6. First Bishop of Carlisle, and in subjection to York b.

Jo. HAGUST. an. 1133.-Anno MCXXXIII., mense Augusto, ante Assumptionem Sanctæ Mariæ, apud Eboracum, a Turstino Archiepiscopo, consecrati sunt Episcopi Galfridus Cancellarius Regis Henrici ad Episcopatum Dunelmensem, Aldulfus Prior de Nostla ad urbem Karleol, quam Rex Henricus initiavit ad sedem Episcopalem, datis sibi Ecclesiis de Cumberland et Westmariland, quæ adjacue


runt archidiaconatui Eboracensi. [ed. Raine, pp. 109, 110; and Twysd. 257.]

ANN. WAVERL. in an. 1133.-Fecit Rex Henricus novum Episcopatum apud Karduil in finibus Angliæ et Scotiæ, et posuit ibi Episcopum Adulfum, Priorem canonicorum regularium Sancti Oswaldi, cui solitus erat confiteri peccata sua: hic autem canonicos regulares posuit in ecclesia sedis suæ. [Gale, II. 151.]

FORDUN, Scotickron. VIII. 3.-Hic Henricus ...... videns Johannem Episcopum Glasguensem per Cumberlandiam ecclesias dedicare, et cetera officia pontificalia secundum morem juris antiqui perficere, cum nec sibi nec Archiepiscopo Eboracensi vellet inde ut domino et prælato obsecundare; incitante Turstino Eboracensi Archiepiscopo, constituit per vim et violentiam Eadwaldum Episcopum in Cumberlandia, ad titulum Carleolensem, contra eum, quia non erat qui ei resistere audebat. Quod cum vidisset Episcopus Johannes Episcopatum suum Glasguensem taliter dimembrari, et neque per legem neque per Regem defendi, transfretavit, et in monasterio Tironensi sese in monachum obtulit. Quem Rex Malcolmus auctoritate domini Papæ de monacho ad præsulatum Glasguensem, ipso multum renitente, restitui fecit. Et vicesimo octavo anno Episcopatus sui moritur, et in monasterio de Jedwod sanctus sepelitur. [vol. I. p. 449; see XI. 52°.]

The Pipe Roll of 31 Hen. I., A.D. 1130 (ed. Hunter, pp. 140-142), contains grants to the Canons of Carlisle, and among other purposes, for the building of their church.

So also the Chron. de Mailros, in an. 1133 (“Adulfus"), and the later chroniclers, Brompton ("Arnulphus," Twysd. 1019), Stubbs (“Adelwoldus," ib. 1720), Rudborne (“Athelwulfus," Hist. Maj. Winton.), R. de Monte ("lulfus"), etc. Richard of Hexham calls him "Adthelwlfus." The earlier chronicles fix the year, 1133; and John of Hexham, among them, the month also, August. The latter likewise so far fixes the day as to imply


that it was shortly before Aug. 15, and Geoffrey of Durham is known to have been consecrated upon Aug. 6. Rudborne gives the year as 1132, and adds that it was 33 Hen. I. (Aug. 6, 1132-Aug. 6, 1133), and Hen. Hunt. has also the 33 H. I., but retains the correct year 1133. Aldulph was not put into any real possession of his diocese until A.D. 1138 (see below). And as Cumberland belonged to the Scots from A.D. 1136 until A.D. 1157, he could scarcely have had much to do with it at any time. See also Rog. Wend., II. 212. • Confusing however, in both places, Henry I. with Henry II.

A.D. 1134. Cistercian Abbey of Calder founded by Ranulph de Meschines, second Earl of Chester and Cumberland a.

Dugd. Mon., V. 339. See also above, p. 13.

A.D. 1134


or 1135. May 2a. Pisa. Pope Innocent II. to Thurstin Archbishop of York.

The Pope will INNOCENTIUS EPISCOPUS SERVUS SERVORUM DEI, vehelp Thurstin. nerabili fratri T[burstino] Ebor. Archiepiscopo, salutem et Apostolicam benedictionem. Probabilem tuæ fidei firmitatem et religionis laudabilem et catholica unitate constantiam sedes Apostolica certis jamdudum indiciis comprobavit. Inde est quod sanctæ matris tuæ Romanæ Ecclesiæ tantam geris sollicitudinem, et tanquam benignus filius ipsius nullatenus es oblitus. Propterea personam tuam sincera in Domino caritate diligimus, et ad ea quæ fraternitati tuæ et Ecclesiæ tuo regimini commissæ profutura esse cognoscimus, libenti animo operam damus. Cæterum super oppressionibus atque molestiis tibi et Ebor. Ecclesiæ, prout accepimus, a Rege Scotia et Johanne Glesguensi Episcopo irrogatis affectione paterna compatimur; atque cum facultas nobis a Deo fuerit attributa, Sedes Apostolica tibi et eidem Ecclesiæ suam justitiam conservabit. Porro quia de statu nostro tua sollicitudo certum diem habere desiderat, esse nostrum tibi breviter duximus intimandum. Relicto itaque in Urbe vicario, atque his quæ fidelibus nostris necessaria erant dispositis, ut fratres nostri ad nos veniendi faciliorem haberent aditum, Pisas sani, Deo gratias, incolumesque pervenimus; ibique cum nostris fratribus commorantes, pro his quæ ad honorem et servitium sanctæ Dei Ecclesiæ pertinent, studiosius laboramus. Tua igitur interest, karissime frater in Domino, aures Divini consilii assiduis precibus propulsare, quatenus Ecclesia Catholica, quæ diutinis est laboribus fatigata, tuis etiam orationibus adjuta, ad quietis portum auxiliante Deo valeat pervenire. Data Pisis VI. nonas Maii. [Reg. Alb. Ebor., P. I. fol. 52.]

a Innocent was living at Pisa in both these years. But the letter seems to have been written no long time after his arrival there

(in Nov., A.D. 1133).
And A.D. 1134 is
therefore the more likely date.

A.D. 1136. March 23. Refoundation of Melrose Abbey by King Davida. ■ Chron. de Mailr. in an.; Orig. Paroch. Scot., I. 280.

a So Chron. de Mailros, in an. 1136, and Chron. S. Crucis. In Reg. Glasg., no. 3, is a grant by King David to S. Kentegern's church of some land at " Perdeyc" (Parthick), which is referred to in a later grant (ib, no. 7) as

A.D. 1136. July 7. Dedication of Glasgow Cathedral.


having been made in dotem Ecclesiæ de Glasgu in eiusdem consecratione." The witnesses to no. 3 are Herbert abbat of Roxburgh, William the Chancellor, etc. etc., but do not include John Bishop of Glasgow him

self, who had fled to Tyron after A.D. 1133. The older constitution of Glasgow was of a body of clergy (supposed to have been instituted by S. Kentegern), living according to


rule, but "in singulis casulis," etc., "unde singulares clerici a vulgo Calledei nuncupabantur (Jocel. in V. S. Kenteg., as quoted by Reeves, Culdees, p. 27).


A.D. 1136. April 22. Pisaa. Pope Innocent II. to William Archbishop of Canterbury, Legate for England and Scotland.

Compel John of


INNOCENTIUS EPISCOPUS SERVUS SERVORUM DEI, veneGlasgow to obey rabili fratri Guillelmo] Cantuariensi Archiepiscopo, ApostoThurstin. lice Sedis legato. Ita rebelles et ingrati districtis debent. animadversionibus coherceri. Quia ergo Johannes Glesguensis Episcopus contra matrem suam sanctam Romanam et Eboracensem Ecclesiam calcaneum suum erexit, et quoscunque potuit in errorem schismatis inducere minime formidavit, sollicitudini tue mandamus, ut sicut in partibus illis vices vestras exequeris, eundem Johannem districte convenias, quatinus a suis erroribus resipiscat, et ad debitam obedientiam atque subiectionem Eboracensis Ecclesie redeat. Si vero infra trium mensium spacium, postquam a te commonitus fuerit, hoc implere contempserit, ex tunc, quousque satisfecerit, eum excommunicationi cum tuis suffraganeis subiicias. Id ipsum Thurstino] Eborac. Archiep. metropolitano suo facere iniunximus. Vale. Data Parisis X. kalend. Maii. [Reg. Alb. Ebor., P. I. fol. 52: and in Dugd., VI. 1188, no. 57.]


For the date, see note to the following letter.

Made so Jan. 25, A.D. 1126.
Read "Pisis."

A.D. 1135. April 22. Pisa. Pope Innocent II. to Thurstin Archbishop of York.


Respecting John

of Glasgow, and nerabili fratri T[kurstino] Ebor. Archiepiscopo, salutem other matters. et Apostolicam benedictionem. Literas et nuntium tuum debita benignitate suscepimus, et super exenniis nobis transmissis devotioni tuæ multimodas gratias exhibemus, Divinam clementiam implorantes ut tam devotum beati Petri filium in tempora longiora conservet incolumem, et pro temporalibus beneficiis præmia æterna recipias. De cætero noverit tua fraternitas, quam, si abbas ille de quo nobis significasti ad nostram præsentiam venerit, quod ad honorem Dei et tuum pertinet superna cooperante clementia sollicite providere curabimus. Iterum autem monasterio Saloberiæ more boni pastoris, Deo propitio, consulas; et qualiter

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