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primitif. Bull. Soc. d'anthrop. de Par., 1895, 4. s., vi, 267–269.-Lewis (J. P.) Folk-lore from North Ceylon. Folk-Lore, Lond., 1895, vi, 176-185.—Lockhart (J.W.) Should criminals be castrated. St. Louis Cour. Med., 1895, xiii, 136.-von Luschan. Ueber zwei alte CanoeSchnitzwerke

Neu-Seeland. Ethnol. Notizbl., Berl., 1895, ii, 1-5, 1 pl.-McAdams (W.) Archäology of Illinois. Rep. Illinois Bd.World's Fair Com., Springfield, 1895, 227– 304.-McGee (W J.) The beginning of agriculture. Am. Anthrop., Wash., 1895, viii, 350–375.-Maclagan (R. C.) Notes on folk-lore objects collected in Argyleshire. Folk-Lore, Lond., 1895, vi, 144-161.

- MacPhail. Traditions, customs, and superstitions of the Lewis. Ibid., 162–170.—Mahoudeau (P.G,) L'albinisme. Rev. mens. de l'École d'anthrop. de Par., 1895, x, 325–342.-Manouvrier (L.) Observation d'un microcéphale vivant et de le cause probable de sa monstruosité. Bull. Soc. d'anthrop. de Par., 1895, 4. s., vi, 227-231. Le T sincipital: curieuse mutilation crânienne néolithique. Ibid., 357360. –Marriott (H. P. F.) Primigenial skeletons, the flood, and the glacial period. Pop. Sc. Month., N. Y., 1895, xlviii, 33–39.—Mathews (R. II.) The aboriginal rock pictures of Australia. Proc. & Tr. Queensland Branch Roy. Geog. Soc. Austral., Brisbane, 1895, x, 46–70, 2 pl. Also, Reprint.

The Kamilaroi class system of the Australian aborigines. lbid., 18-34, 1 map. Also, Reprint.

The rock paintings and carvings of the Australian aborigines. J. Anthrop. Inst., Lond., 1895, XXV, 145-163, 3 pl.–Matveyeva (V. G.) [Physical development of the children of the St. Petersburg public schools. ] Vrach, St. Petersb., 1895, xvi, 918; 941. -Mehlis (C.) Neue Ausgrabungen auf der Heidenberg in der Nordpfalz. Cor.-Bl. d. dentsch. Gesellsch. f. Anthrop, etc., München, 1895, xxvi, 27–31. — Meige (H.) L'infantilisme, le féminisme et les hermaphrodites antiques. Anthropologie, Par., 1895, vi, 257; +14;

529.—Mense (C.) Linguistische Beobachtungen von unteren und mittleren Kongo. Festschr. d. deutsch. anthrop. Gesellsch. 2. xxvi. ally. Versamml. zu Cassel, 1895, 2137.- Meringer (R.) Studien zur germanischen Volkskunde. III. Der Hausrath des oberdeutschen Hauses. Mitth. d. anthrop. Gesellsch. in Wien, 1895, xxv, 56-68.Meyer (H.) Die Insel Tenerife und ihre Bewohner. Geog. Ztschr., Leipz., 1895, i, 556-580.- Mingazzini (P.) Íl collezionismo negli animali. Atti. d. Soc. rom. di antrop., Roma, 1894-5, ii, 129–151. Mivart (St. G.) The evolution of evolution. Am. Cath. Quart. Rev., Phila., 1895, xx, 673-697.-Modi (J. J.) The bas-relief of Beharâm Gour (Beharâm V.) at Naksh-i-Rustam and his marriage with an Indian princess. J. Bombay Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc., 1895, xix, 58-75.Moore (A. W.) Further notes on Manx folk-lore. Antiquary, Lond., 1895,5; 38; 72; 142; 175; 198 ; 265 ; 293 ; :44.—Moorehead (W. K.) A description of Fort Ancient. Ohio Arch. & Hist. Pub., Columbus, 1895, iv, 362–377. — de Mortillet (G.) Animal gravé sur une table de dolmen. Bull. Soc. d'anthrop. de Par., 1895, 1. s., vi, 231-235. Chronique,palethnologique. Rev. mens. de l'École d'anthrop. de Par., 1895, x, 343–351. -Moschen (L.) Il metodo naturale in craniologia. Atti d. Soc. rom. di antrop., Roma, 1894-5, ii, 155-182. – Motti (G.) Anomalie degli organi interni nei degenerati. Anomalo, Napoli, 1894-5, vi, 132–145, 2 pl.-Myres (J. L.) The miser's doom; a modern Greek morality. J. Anthrop. Inst., Lond., 1895, XXV, 102-104, + pl.-de Nadaillac. Le Canada précolombien. [Rev.] Anthropologie, Par., 1895, vi, 569–573. Les mound-bilders : graphie. Rev. d. quest. scient., Brux., 1895, 2. S., viii, 353-441. Also, Reprint.-O'Gorman (P. W.) Notes on comparative heights and weights in prisoners. Indian M. Gaz., Calcutta, 1895, xxx, 337.Oldenberg (H.) Die Religion des Veda und der Buddhismus,

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Deutsche Rundsch., Berl., 1895, xxi, | pologie der Halswirbelsäule; Bei193–225.-Oldham (R. D.) The al- trag zur Entwickelungsmechanik leged miocene man in Burma. Nat. der menschlichen Körperform. Sc., Lond., 1895, vii, 201.-Otto- Sitzungsb. d. math.-phys. Cl. d. lenghi (S.) La sensibilité et l'âge. k.-bayer. Akad. d. Wissensch. zu Arch. ital. de biol., Turin, 18995-6, München, 1895, 3–23.- Ransom (J. xxiv, 139–148.-Peet (S. D.) Com- B.) Should insane criminals be imparison of the effigy-builders among prisoned or put to death? Tr. M. modern Indians. Am. Antiquarian, Soc. N. Y., Phila., 1895, 221–244, Chicago, 1995, xvii, 19–43. —Pella- 3 pl.–Rasch (C.) Ueber die Amokcani (P.) Cranii di grassatori omi- Krankheit der Malayen. Neurol. cidi del Museo Anatomico di Bo- Centralbl., Leipz., 1895, xiv, 856– logna. Atti d. xi Cong. med. inter- 859.-Regnault (F.) Déformations naz. 1894, Roma, 1895, v, med. leg., crâniennes dans l'art sino-japanais. 22–29,-Perrier' du Carne et L. Bull. Soc. d'anthrop. de Par., 1895, Manouvrier. Le dolmen “de la 4. s., vi, 409-413.

Pourquoi Justice” d'Épone (Seine-et-Oise) ; les nègres sont-ils noirs ? (Étude mobilier funéraire et ossements hu- sur les causes de la coloration de la mains. Bull. Soc. d'anthrop. de peau.) _Méd. mod., Par., 1895, vi, Par., 1895, 4. s., vi, 273-297.-Perrot 606. — Remondino (P. C.) The (G.) La religion de la mort et les evolution of relic worship; a page rites funéraires en Grèce. Rev. d. from the history of medicine. Med. deux mondes, Par., 1895, cxxxii, Age, Detroit, 1895, xiii, 591-594.96–127.-Piette (E.) Hiatus et Robertson (J. S.) Medicine and lacune: vestiges de la période de surgery among the Australian abotransition dans la grotte du Mas- rigines. Internat. M. Mag., Phila., d’Azil. Bull. Soc. d'anthrop.de 1895-6, iv, 619-656.-Robin (P.) Par., 1895, 4. s., vi, 235-267. -Pit- Dégéréscence de l'espèce humaine; zorno (M.) Esame di un delin- causes et rémèdes. Bull. Soc. d'anquente. Gior. d. r. Accad. di med. throp. de Par., 1895, 4. s., vi, 426– di Torino, 1895, 3. s., xliii, 139-457.- 433. – Rouse (W. H. D. í Notes van der Plaats (J. D.) Bereken- from Syria. Folk-Lore, Lond., 1895, ingen over de metingen van Prof. vi, 172-175.-Schmeltz J. D. E.) C. Winkler aan de hoofden van Beiträge zur Ethnographie von Neu omstreeks 50 moordenaars en 50 re- Guinea. Internat. Arch. f. Ethcruten. Gsneesk. Bl. u. Klin, en nog., Leiden, 1895, viii, 153-169, 1 Lab. v. de prakt., Haarlem, 1895, ii, pl. -Schmidkontz (J.) Zur Orts139–159.-Pohath Kehelpannala nahmen-Forschung. Cor.-BI. d. (T. B.) Ceremonies observed by deutsch. Gesellsch. f. Anthrop. the Kandyans in paddy cultivation. [etc.], München, 1895, xxvi, 49J. Anthrop. Inst., Lond., 1895, xxv, 55.-Schurtz (H.) Die Völker10+-111.- Poncet (F.) Un bandage kunde der Gegenwart. Geog. herniaire à l'époque phénicienne, Ztschr., Leipz., 1895, i, 459–465.d'après une terre cuite trouvée à Schwalbe (G.) Zur Methodik Sousse ( Eladrumète) et représentant statistischer Untersuchungen über le dieu Bès ou Bizou. Progrès méd., die Ohrformen von Geisteskranken Par., 1895, 3. s., i, 358-361. Also, und Verbrechern. Arch. f. Psytransl. [Abstr.): Lancet, Lond., 1895, chiat., Berl., 1895, xxvii, 633-641. ii, 869.-Porter (W.T.) On the ap- -Schweinfurth G.) Ein altes plication to individual school chil- Heiligtum an der Ufern des Möris. dren of the means derived from Westermann's Monatsh., Brnschwg., anthropological measurements by 1895, 361-372. Also, Reprint. the generalizing method. Bull. de Ein altes Stauwerk aus der Pyral'Inst. internat. de statist., Rome, midenzeit. Ibid., 35–44. Also, Re1895, viji, 279-281.-Processo crim- print.--Seler (E.) Altertümer aus inale studiato antropologicamente. Gautemala. Ethnol, Notizbl., Berl., Cron. d. manic. di Ancona, 1895, vi, 1895, ii, 20-26, 1 pl.–Sellers (Edith). 137-141.--Ranke (J.) Zur Anthro- The old age homes in Austria. Nine

teenth Cent., Lond., 1895, xxviii, 3:38–3+7. -- Sergi (G.) Crani di Creta dell'epoca di Micene. Atti d. Soc. rom. di antrop., Roma, 1894-5, ii, 285–287.

Crani siculi neolitici. Ibid., 281–283.

Sopra due crani di tombe dette “barbariche." Ibid., 284.

Intorno ai pigmei d'Europa. Ibid., 288–294.-Sighele (S.) Un pays de criminels-nés. Arch. d'anthrop. crim., Par., 1895, x, 570-594, 1 pl. Stedman (J. M.) Observations on a so-called petrified man.

Am. Naturalist, Phila., xxix, 326–335.Stuver (E.) Asexualization for the limitation of disease and the prevention and punishment of crime. Ohio M. J., Cincin., 1895, vi, 193– 197. Also: Tr. Colorado M. Soc., Denver, 1895, 327-336. — Suchier (E.) Prähistorische Funde bei Höchsta. M. Cor.-Bl. d. deutsch. Gesellsch. f. Anthrop. [etc.], München, 1895, xxvi, 57–59.-Sully (J.) The new study of children. Fortnightly Rev., Lond., 1895, lviii, 723– 737. – Thomas (C.) Prehistoric contact of Americans with oceanic peoples. Am. Antiquarian, Chicago, 18:15, xvii, 101 ; 191.-von Török (A.) Neuere Beiträge zur Reform der Kraniologie. Internat. Monatschr. f. Anat. u. Physiol., Leipz., 1895, xii, 381 ; 113.

Ueber die systematische Untersuchung der Schädelserien in Bezug auf die Typenbestimmung. Ibid., 381–139.

Ueber die neue paläethnologische Eintheilung der Steinzeit. Cor.-BI. d. deutsch, Gesellsch. f. Anthrop., München, 1895, xxvi, 17-20. -Tooker (W. W.) The Algonquian appellatives of the Siouan tribes of Virginia. Am. Anthiop., Wash., 1895, viii, 376-392.—Valentini (P.J.J.; Clay figures found in Guatemala. Am. Anthrop., Wash., 1895, viii, 402-106. – Variot (G.) Les avaleurs de sabres. Rev. scient., Par., 1895, 4. s., iv, 304-306.-Verneau (R.) Ouolofs, Ley bous et Sérères. Anthropologie, Par., 1895, vi, 510-528.–Vincent (J.-B.) Les

Canaques de la Nouvelle-Calédonie: esquisse ethnographique. Gaz. hebd. d. sc. méd. de Bordeaux, 1895, xvi, 98; 110; 122; 134; 145 ; 158; 170; 182; 194; 206; 218; 230 242; 254; 2611; 278; 290; 302 ; 314; 338; 349; 416. Weinhold (K.) Die altdeutschen Verwünschungsformeln. Sitzungsb. d. k. preuss. Akad. d. Wissensch. zu Berl., 1895, 667-703.-von Weinzierl (R.) Die neolithische Ansiedelung bei GrossCzernosek an der Elbe. Mitth. d. anthrop. Gesellsch. in Wien, 1895, XXV, 29–49.-Weisbach (A.) Die Salzburger. Ibid., 69–84.–Weissenburg (S.) Ueber die zum mongolischen Boden gehörigen Spannringe und Schutzplatten. Ibid., 50-55.

Die südrussischen Juden : eine anthropometrische studie. Arch. f. Anthrop., Brnschwg., 1894-5, xxiii, 347; 531.Weld (L. G.) Among the cannibal islands. Pop. Sc. Month., N. Y., 1895, xlviii, 229-233.-Williams (S. W.) Notes upon some bronze and stone weapons discovered in Wales. Archæol. Cambrensis, Lond., 18995, 241–249.

Notes on some sepulchral slabs and monumental effigies in Wales. Ibid., 112–132 — Winkler (C.) Iets over crimineele anthropologie.

Geneesk. Bl. u. Klin. en Lab. v. de prakt., Haarlem, 1895, ii, 113–117, 1 diay. -Witkowski. La taille de l'homme. J. de la santé, Par., 1895, xii, 272; 291.-Woodburn (A.) and Campbell (J. M.) Note on brick figures found in a Buddhist tower in Kahu, near Mirpur Khás, Sindh. J. Bombay Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc., 1895, xix, 44-46, 2 pl.-Wright (G. F.) New evidence of glacial man in Ohio. Pop. Sc. Month., N. Y., 1895, xlviii, 145–105. - Zaborowski. La Russie préhistorique et les relations de l'Europe avec l'Asie par la Caspienne. Rev. scient., Par., 1893, 4. s., iv, 587–593.

Les sauvages de l'Indo-Chine: caractères et origines. Bull. Soc. d'anthrop. de Par., 1895, 4. s., vi, 198–212.

THE ARROW.-Owing to Mr Cushing's absence in Florida, the publication of the second part of his paper on the arrow has been unadvoidably delayed.

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A few fragmentary references are to be found among the writings of explorers, early Australian historians, missionaries, and others at different times in regard to figures drawn upon trees and upon the ground by the aboriginal inhabitants of this continent, but so far as I am aware no attempt has yet been made to classify these drawings or to give a detailed description of them. As I have been recording and describing with some measure of success the rock pictures* of the Australian aborigines, it seems fitting that I should supplement my researches by a short paper on pictures cut or painted upon trees or delineated upon the ground in various ways by these people.

In treating of this subject it will be necessary to divide it into two parts—one dealing with the earthen figures of different kinds, the other describing the devices drawn upon trees. Before proceeding to describe the drawings seen by myself under these two divisions it will be interesting to make a few selections from the books of early Australian writers and others in regard to these works of native art observed in different parts of the continent, both for purposes of comparison and to show their wide geographic range.

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*“Aboriginal Rock Paintings and Carvings in New South Wales," published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, VII, N. s., pp. 143-156 : “The Aboriginal Rock Pictures of Australia," in the Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of Australasia, Queensland Branch, x, pp. 46–70, and “Australian Rock Pictures," in The American Anthropologist, viu, pp. 268-278.

Drawings on the Ground These drawings consist of several kinds. (1) Some are outlined by laying down logs, bark, or bushes to a certain height and then covering them with earth. This was no doubt done because the natives had very primitive tools for digging ; in large figures raising a considerable quantity of earth would require much time and labor, especially if the ground were hard or clayey. (2) Others are formed entirely of loose earth heaped up into the required shape. A modification of this form of drawing was observable on the Bora ground at Gundabloui, described by me, where there were two human figures, a man and a woman, roughly modeled in raised earth; then a sheet of bark was cut into human outline, showing the arms, legs, etc., and this was laid on top of the raised earth.* (3) Another kind of drawing consists of figures of men, animals, and devices in various patterns † cut into the surface of the ground, a nick or groove from two to three inches wide and about two inches deep being cut in the turf along the outline of each. These grooves were cut with tomahawks or with flat pieces of wood on which an edge had been formed. (4) Others again are merely drawn upon the sand with a stick.

The earliest authentic account of native drawings on the turf with which I am acquainted is that contained in Mr J. Henderson's work. I In describing a Bora ground near Wellington, New South Wales, he says: “A long straight avenue of trees extended for about a mile.

On one extremity of this, the earth had been heaped up, so as to resemble the gigantic figure of a human being extended on his breast, while through the whole length of this sylvan temple a variety of other characters were observed rudely imprinted on the turf.” Mr Henderson states also that "the devices on the turf bore a strong similitude to the lingen of the Hindoos, and that he "recognized several hieroglyphics which seemed also to represent under different forms the same symbol which the Hindoos have selected in order

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* Journ. Anthrop. Inst., XXIV, p. 416.

# These drawings on the turf are sometimes very numerous and cover a considerable area At Gundabloui a space 320 yards long by 40 feet wide was covered with a great variety of such drawings. Journ. Anthrop. Inst., XXIV, pp. 414-418; Journ, Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales, XXVIII, pp. 109-114.

I" Observations on the Colonies of New South Wales and Van Diemans Land," 1832, pp. 145, 146.

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