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taking; and (ii) shall not facilitate, require, permit, or consider such participation if such action occurs.
8 15a.34 Access to course offerings.
A recipient shall not provide any course or otherwise carry out any of its education program or activity separately on the basis of sex, or require or refuse participation therein by any of its students on such basis, including health, physical education, industrial, business, vocational, technical, home economics, music and adult education
8 15a.32 Housing.
(a) General. A recipient shall not, on the basis of sex, apply different rules or regulations, impose different fees or requirements, or offer different services or benefits related to housing, except as provided in this section (including housing provided only to married students).
(b) Housing provided by recipient. (1) A recipient may provide separate housing on the basis of sex.
(2) Housing provided by a recipient to students of one sex, when compared to that provided to students of the other sex, shall be as a whole:
(i) Proportionate in quantity to the number of students of that sex apply. ing for such housing; and
(ii) Comparable in quality and cost to the student.
(c) Other housing. (1) A recipient shall not on the basis of sex, administer different policies or practices concerning occupancy by its students of housing other than provided by such recipient.
(2) A recipient which through solicitation, listing, approval of housing, or otherwise, assists any agency, organization, or person in making housing available to any of its students, shall take such reasonable action as may be necessary to assure itself that such housing as provided to students of one sex, when compared to that provided to students of the other sex, is as a whole: (i) Proportionate in quantity and (ii) comparable in quality and cost to the student. A recipient may render such assistance to any agency, organization, or person which provides all or part of such housing to students only of one sex.
(a) With respect to classes and activities in physical education at the elementary school level, the recipient shall comply fully with this section as expeditiously as possible but in no event later than one year from the effective date of this regulation. With respect to physical education classes and activities at the secondary and post-secondary levels, the recipient shall comply fully with this section as expeditiously as possible but in no event later than three years from the effective date of this regulation.
(b) This section does not prohibit grouping of students in physical education classes and activities by ability as assessed by objective standards of individual performance developed and applied without regard to sex.
(c) This section does not prohibit separation of students by sex within physical education classes or activities during participation wrestling, boxing, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball and other sports, the pur. pose or major activity of which involves bodily contact.
(d) Where use of a single standard of measuring skill or progress in a physical education class has an adverse effect on members of one sex, the recipient shall use appropriate standards which do not have such effect.
(e) Portions of classes in elementary and secondary schools which deal ex. clusively with human sexuality may be conducted in separate sessions for boys and girls.
(f) Recipients may make requirements based on vocal range or quality which may result in a chorus or choruses of one or predominantly one sex.
8 15a.33 Comparable facilities.
A recipient may provide separate toilet, locker room, and shower facili. ties on the basis of sex, but such facilities provided for students of one sex shall be comparable to such facilities provided for students of the other sex.
counseling or appraisal materials or by counselors.
$ 15a.35 Access to schools operated by
L.E.A.S. A recipient which is a local educational agency shall not, on the basis of sex, exclude any person from admission to:
(a) Any institution of vocational education operated by such recipient; or
(b) Any other school or educational unit operated by such recipient, unless such recipient otherwise makes available to such person, pursuant to the same policies and criteria of admission, courses, services, and facilities comparable to each course, service, and facility offered in or through such schools.
$ 15a.36 Counseling and use of appraisal
and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A recipient shall not discriminate against any person on the basis of sex in the counseling or guidance of students or applicants for admission.
(b) Use of appraisal and counseling materials. A recipient which uses testing or other materials for appraising or counseling students shall not use different materials for students on the basis of their sex or use materials which permit or require different treatment of students on such basis unless such different materials cover the same occupations and interest areas and the use of such different materials is shown to be essential to eliminate sex bias. Recipients shall develop and use internal procedures for ensuring that such materials do not discriminate the basis of sex. Where the use of a counseling test or other instrument results in a substantially disproportionate number of members of one sex in any particular course of study or classification, the recipient shall take such action as is necessary to assure itself that such disproportion is not the result of discrimination in the instrument or its application.
(c) Disproportion in classes. Where a recipient finds that a particular class contains a substantially disproportionate number of individuals of one sex, the recipient shall take such action as is necessary to assure itself that such disproportion is not the result of discrimination on the basis of sex in
8 15a.37 Financial assistance.
(a) General. Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, in providing financial assistance to any of its students, a recipient shall not:
(1) On the basis of sex, provide different amounts or types of such assistance, limit eligibility for such assistance which is of any particular type or source, apply different criteria or otherwise discriminate;
(2) Through solicitation, listing, approval, provision of facilities or other services, assist any foundation, trust, agency, organization, or person which provides assistance to any of such recipient's students in a manner which discriminates on the basis of sex; or
(3) Apply any rule or assist in application of any rule concerning eligibility for such assistance which treats persons of one sex differently from persons of the other sex with regard to marital or parental status.
(b) Financial aid established by certain legal instruments. (1) A recipient may administer or assist in the administration of scholarships, fellowships, or other forms of financial assistance established pursuant to domestic or foreign wills, trusts, bequests or similar legal instruments or by acts of a foreign government which require that awards be made to members of a particular sex specified therein: Provided, That the overall effect of the award of such sex-restricted scholarships, fellowships and other forms of financial assistance does not discrimi. nate on the basis of sex.
(2) Το ensure nondiscriminatory awards of assistance as required in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, recipi. ents shall develop and use procedures under which:
(i) Students are selected for award of financial assistance on the basis of nondiscriminatory criteria and not on the basis of availability of funds restricted to members of a particular sex;
(ii) An appropriate sex-restricted scholarship, fellowship, or other form of financial assistance is allocated to
dents of one sex than of the other, including family planning services. However, any recipient which provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care.
each student selected under paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section; and
(iii) No student is denied the award for which he or she was selected under paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section because of the absence of a scholarship, fellowship, or other form of financial assistance designed for a member of that student's sex.
(c) Athletic scholarships. (1) To the extent that a recipient awards athletic scholarships or grants-in-aids, it must provide reasonable opportunities for such awards for members of each sex in proportion to the number of students of each sex participating in interscholastic or intercollegiate athletics.
(2) Separate athletic scholarships or grants-in-aid for members of each sex may be provided as part of separate athletic teams for members of each sex to the extent consistent with this paragraph and $ 15a.41.
8 15a.38 Employment assistance to stu
dents. (a) Assistance by recipient in making available outside employment. A recipient which assists any agency, organization or person in making employment available to any of its students:
(1) Shall assure itself that such employment is made available without discrimination on the basis of sex; and
(2) Shall not render such services to any agency, organization, or person which discriminates on the basis of sex in its employment practices.
(b) Employment of students by recipients. A recipient which employs any of its students shall not do so in a manner which violates Subpart E.
8 15a.40 Marital or parental status.
(a) Status generally. A recipient shall not apply any rule concerning a student's actual or potential parental, family, or marital status which treats students differently on the basis of sex.
(b) Pregnancy and related conditions. (1) A recipient shall not discriminate against any student, or exclude any student from its education program or activity, including any class or extracurricular activity on the basis of such student's pregnancy, childbirth, false pregnancy, termination or pregnancy or recover therefrom, unless the student requests vol. untarily to participate in a separate portion of the program or activity of the recipient.
(2) A recipient may require such a student to obtain the certification of a physician that the student is physically and emotionally able to continue participation in the normal education program or activity so long as such a certification is required of all students for other physical or emotional conditions requiring the attention of a physician.
(3) A recipient which operates a portion of its education program or activity separately for pregnant students, admittance to which is completely vol. untary on the part of the student as provided in paragraph (b)(1) of this section shall ensure that the instructional program in the separate program is comparable to that offered to non-pregnant students.
(4) A recipient shall treat pregnancy, childbirth, false pregnancy, termination of pregnancy and recovery therefrom in the same manner and under the same policies as any other temporary disability with respect to any medical or hospital benefit, service, plan or policy which such recipient administers, operates, offers, or participates in with respect to students admitted to the recipient's educational program or activity.
8 15a.39 Health and insurance benefits
and services. In providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner which would violate Subpart E if it were provided to employees of the recipient. This section shall not prohibit a recipient from providing any benefit or service which may be used by a different proportion of stu
(5) In the case of a recipient which does not maintain a leave policy for its students, or in the case of a student who does not otherwise qualify for leave under such a policy, a recipient shall treat pregnancy, childbirth, false pregnancy, termination of pregnancy and recovery therefrom as a justification for a leave of absence for so long a period of time as is deemed medically necessary by the student's physician, at the conclusion of which the student shall be reinstated to the status which she held when the leave began.
$ 15a. 41 Athletics.
(a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, be treated differently from another person or otherwise be discriminated against in any interscholastic, intercollegiate, club or intramural athletics, offered by the recipient, and no recipient shall provide any such athletics separately on such basis.
(b) Separate teams. Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section, a recipient may operate or sponsor separate teams for members of each sex where selection for such teams is based upon competitive skill or the activity involved is a contact sport. However, where a recipient operates or sponsors a team in a particular sport for members of one sex but operates or sponsors no such team for members of the other sex, and athletic opportunities for members of that sex have previously been limited, members of the excluded sex must be allowed to try-out for the team offered unless the sport involved is a contact sport. For the purposes of this part, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact.
(c) Equal opportunity. A recipient which operates or sponsors interscholastic, intercollegiate, club or intramural athletics shall provide equal athletic opportunity for members of both sexes. In determining whether equal opportunities are available the Secretary will consider, among other factors:
(1) Whether the selection of sports and levels of competition effectively accommodate the interests and abilities of members of both sexes;
(2) The provision of equipment and supplies;
(3) Scheduling of games and practice time;
(4) Travel and per diem allowance;
(5) Opportunity to receive coaching and academic tutoring;
(6) Assignment and compensation of coaches and tutors;
(7) Provision of locker rooms, practice and competitive facilities;
(8) Provision of medical and training facilities and services;
(9) Provision of housing and dining facilities and services;
(10) Publicity. Unequal aggregate expenditures for members of each sex or unequal expenditures for male and female teams if a recipient operates or sponsors separate teams will not constitute noncompliance with this section, but the Secretary may consider the failure to provide necessary funds for teams for one sex in assessing equality of opportunity for members of each sex.
(d) Adjustment period. A recipient which operates or sponsors interscholastic, intercollegiate, club or intramural athletics at the elementary school level shall comply fully with the section as expeditiously as possible but in no event later than one year fom the effective date of this regulation. A recipient which operates or sponsors interscholastic, intercollegiate, club or intramural athletics at the secondary or post-secondary school level shall comply fully with this section as expeditiously as possible but in no event later than three years from the effective date of this regulation.
8 15a.42 Textbooks and curricular materi.
Nothing in this regulation shall be interpreted as requiring or prohibiting or abridging in any way the use of particular textbooks or curricular materials.
8 15a.51 Employment.
(a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether full-time or part-time, under any education program or activity operated by a recipient which receives or benefits from Federal financial assistance.
(2) A recipient shall make all employment decisions in any education program or activity operated by such recipient in a nondiscriminatory manner and shall not limit, segregate, or classify applicants or employees in any way which could adversely affect any applicant's or employee's employment opportunities or status because
(3) Rates of pay or any other form of compensation, and changes in compensation;
(4) Job assignments, classifications and structure, including position descriptions, lines of progression, and seniority lists;
(5) The terms of any collective bargaining agreement;
(6) Granting and return from leaves of absence, leave for pregnancy, childbirth, false pregnancy, termination of pregnancy, leave for persons of either sex to care for children or dependents, or any other leave;
(7) Fringe benefits available by virtue of employment, whether or not administered by the recipient;
(8) Selection and financial support for training, including apprenticeship, professional meetings, conferences, and other related activities, selection for tuition assistance, selection for sabbaticals and leaves of absence to pursue training;
(9) Employer-sponsored activities, including social recreational programs; and
(10) Any other term, condition, or privilege of employment.
(3) A recipient shall not enter into any contractual or other relationship which directly or indirectly has the effect of subjecting employees or students to discrimination prohibited by this subpart, including relationships with employment and referral agencies, with labor unions, and with organizations providing or administering fringe benefits to employees of the recipient.
(4) A recipient shall not grant preferences to applicants for employment on the basis of attendance at any educational institution or entity which admits as students only or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preferences has the effect of discriminating on the basis of sex in violation of this part.
(b) Application. The provisions of this subpart apply to:
(1) Recruitmentadvertising, and the process of application for employment;
(2) Hiring, upgrading, promotion, consideration for and award of tenure, demotion, transfer, layoff, termination, application of nepotism policies, right of return from layoff, and rehiring;
& 15a.52 Employment criteria.
A recipient shall not administer or operate any test or other criterion for any employment opportunity which has a disproportionately adverse effect on persons on the basis of sex unless:
(a) Use of such test or other criterion is shown to predict validly successful performance in the position in question; and
(b) Alternative tests or criteria for such purpose, which do not have such disproportionately adverse effect, are shown to be unavailable.
8 15a.53 Recruitment.
(a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient has been found to be presently discriminating on the basis of sex in the recruitment or hiring of employees, or has been found to have in the past so discriminated, the recipient shall recruit members of the sex so discriminated against so as