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directly representing the Latin sta "stand," has numerous nouns from that root, as station, étage, from statio, état from status. From these nouns fresh verbs are derived, as stationner and the like. So also the modern Indian languages, while they have lost such roots as dip, kram, as verbs, have nouns dipa, dîya and derivatives,. also krama as a noun with numerous secondary formations.
Analogous to this is the practice we are now discussing of forming verbs from Sanskrit participles, a practice which begins as early as Prakrit, and appears to have arisen from the habit mentioned in § 2 of forming a definite preterite by compounding the participle with, as in tsf "I have gone." It was pointed out in § 7 that this practice had been extended in Prakrit so widely that it had resulted in giving a termination in म्हि to the present tense, as in पेसिदम्हि . Examples are:
Skr. √विश् “ enter,” with उप, उपविश् “ take a seat,” i.e. to pass from a standing to a sitting posture, p.p.p. ufag “seated,” Pa. zufagì, Pr. Bafagì, and later Bagg, whence, by rejection of ▼, H. a☎, P. id., M. a, where the last consonant is due to a confusion between बैठ् and वस. G. has बेश, which is from Skr. pres. उपविशति . Its p.p.p. is at. S. also fag by softening of to, p.p.p. a. With प्र, प्रविश्, “enter,” “ penetrate,” P. पविट्ठो, Pr. पट्ठो, whence H. , "to enter" (generally with the idea of penetrating forcibly). G. from faufa, p.p.p. î¿ì, s. fag, p.p.p. z7.
Skr. √ पच् “ cook, " पचति, p. p. p. पक्व, Pa. Pr. पक्को, H. पक “ to be cooked," to be in process of cooking (if you ask, "Is dinner ready?” your man answers, T "It is being cooked"), P. ч, G. qa, M. fq. It also means "to ripen," "to be in course of growing ripe," B. पाक. There is also a stem from the present पचति, as S. पच् “ to grow ripe," p.p.p. . H. and all the rest have, but in the sense
of rotting, decaying.
Skr. √ शुष् “ dry,” p.p.p. शुष्क, Pa. Pr. सुक्खो, H. सूख “ to be dry,” P. सुक्ख, S. G. M. सुक, B. 0.
Skr. √भञ्ज् “ break,” p. p. p. भग्न, Pa. Pr. भग्गो, H. भाग “ to flee” (said originally of an army, “to be broken up and dispersed"), G. भाग, M. भांग, “ to yield, give way,” also भंग , “to break" 0. भांग Here again there are stems as if from the present form Bha भंजति, Pa. भंजति, Pr. भंज, H. भंज " to be broken,” and भज. (See $19.)
Skr. √ गम् “go,” with उद्, P.P.p. उद्गत “ sprung up,” Pr. उग्गओ, H. उग, “ to spring up ” (as a plant), P. उग्ग, S. G. उग, M. उगव. It is questionable whether we should here class some words which come from √ भृ with उद्. The present would be उद्भरति, but though the p. p. p. in Sanskrit is उद्धृत, yet in such verbs Prakrit forms the p.p.p. on the model of the present tense, and has उब्भरित्रो as if from Skr. उद्भरित, so that the modern verbs उभर, उभल, and the like keep the type of the present tense as much as that of the participle.
Another very common word is उठ् "to rise," but in this case Prakrit has already adopted this form for all parts of the verb, as has also Pali; thus from √ उद् + स्था Skr makes उत्था “ to stand up."
Here, whatever be the form taken in Sanskrit, both Pali and Prakrit assume a stem, and conjugate it as if it were a Bhû verb throughout. It seems as though being com
pounded with T had lost its final consonant, thereby making a form 381, whence Prakrit. Sanskrit has adopted the opposite course, and while keeping intact, has sacrificed the of in the non-conjugational tenses, retaining it in the conjugational ones where it is prevented from coalescing with the preposition by the reduplicated syllable. In the moderns we have H., P., S. Ce and C, and in all the rest . The stem has undergone a change of meaning which is रह् explainable only by bringing it under this head.
Skr. "desert," fa, usually found in Prakrit only in the p.p.p., (= fga) in the sense of "deserted," then almost adverbially, as "without," hence probably the meaning which it bears in the modern languages, "to stop," "stay," "remain," from the idea of being deserted, left behind. It is in H. and all except M. TT, G. . It is ancillary in most 7. of the languages as чà “go on reading." (See § 72, 10).
§ 15. Single active stems exhibit the same method of formation as the single neuter stems given in § 12. A few examples are given of roots which in Sanskrit are of the Bhû, or the closely allied Div, Tud, and Chor classes.
Skr. √ खाद् “eat,” खादति, Pa. id., Pr. खाइ (Var. viii. 27, for खाअ), H., and so in all. Gipsy khava, Kash. khyun, Singhalese kanavá.1 Skr. / चर्व “ chew, ” चर्वति, Pr. चल, H. चाब, P. चल, S. चब, G. M. चाव, 0. चोबा, B. चाब.
Skr. √ पठ् “ read,” पठति, Pa. id., Pr. पढद्द, H. पढ़ (parh), P. M. G. id., S. पडह (which is only their way of writing पढ), B. पड, 0. पढ़.
Skr. / प्रछ् “ ask,” पृच्छति, Pa. पुच्छति, Pr. पुच्छद्, H. पूछ, P. पुच्छ, G. B. id., M. पुस् (see Vol. I. p. 218 ), 0. पुछ, पचार.
Skr. √ मार्ग (and मृग् ) “seek,” i. मार्गति, . मार्गयति, Pa. मग्गति and मग्गेति, Pr. मग्गद्, H. मांग, P. मंग, S. मङ (mang ), G. M. माग, B. मांग, 0. माग.
Childers, in J.R.A.S. vol. viii. p. 146.
Skr. / रच् “keep,” रक्षति, Pa. रक्खति, Pr. रक्खद्द, H. रख “keep," also simply “ to put, " पोथी को पीढे पर रखो “ put the book on the stool," P., S. TE, G. M. B. TE, O. JE, Singh. rakinavá. Skr. √ कथ् “ say,” कथयति P. कथेति, Pr. कहर, कहे, H. कह, P. S. B. O. id. In M. it is wanting. G., Singh. kiyanavá.
Those roots which belong to other conjugations are almost always reduced to the Bhû type, even if Prakrit retains any of the conjugational peculiarities the moderns do not. They take in most instances the root-form of the present as it occurs in Prakrit, and keep it throughout. Instances are:
Skr. √ ज्ञा “know,” ix. जानाति, Pa. id., Pr. जाणाति, also जाणइ (Pr. keeps throughout, but it and Pa. occasionally drop the initial, having आणादि, etc.), H. B. जान, the rest जाण. Gipsy janava, Kash. cánun, Singh. dannavá.
Skr. √"do," viii. fa, Pa. id. (see § 1 and § 4), Pr. quand
and the stem is adopted in most tenses. The moderns universally reject all forms but, which they use throughout except in the p.p.p., which is the phonetic equivalent of Prakrit (see § 48).
Skr. √ श्रु “ hear,” v. शृणोति, Pa. सुणोति, सुणाति, Pr. सुणद्, H. सुन, and in all सुन or सुण.
Skr. / आप “ get,” v. आप्नोति (but also i. आपति), Pa. आपुनोति, ayaifa and quifa, Pr. (see § 5) MT, seldom used alone. Old H. "to obtain," also used in the sense of giving.
अप्य मत्ति सरसें सबल ॥
"Having obtained wisdom and the aid of Sarasen (Saraswati)." -Chand, Pr. R. i. xv.
"to give," which is the ordinary word in that language, may (). Far more common is the compound
be from this root or from
with प्र = प्राप, Pa. as above. Pr. पाउण्डू and later पावद्, Old H. and P. पाउ, H. पाव and पा, S. पा, 0. id., G. पाम, M. पाव, B. पाओ. In all in the sense of finding, getting, obtaining.
Skr. √ ग्रह “ seize,” ix. गृह्णाति. The treatment of this root is peculiar. Pa. for the most part takes a form गएह, and Pr. generally गेएह. Some
of the principal tenses are given here.
There are thus two types in Pa. ganh and gah, and three in Pr. genh, gah, and ghe. The double t in ghettum and ghettüna arises, I fancy, from e being short in Pr., and is not an organic part of the word (Var. viii. 15).
In the modern languages H. has as an archaic and poetic word. P. also गह. But M. घे “ take,” is very much used, as also S. गिन्ह, and O. घेन, the other languages prefer the stem ले from. Singh. gannava, perhaps Gipsy gelava, is connected with this root, though it means rather “to bring.” (Paspati, p. 241.)
§ 16. Some Sanskrit roots ending in vowels have undergone curious and interesting changes in the modern languages. Such is Skr. √दा " give," iii. ददाति. This is one of the primitive Indo-European race-words, and being such we probably have not got it in its original form in Sanskrit. With the idea of giving is intimately connected that of dividing, or apportioning, and we find in Sanskrit several roots with this meaning, all of which seem to point back to some earlier