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christian mysteries and duties as are necessary to salvation.

church is

8. This church, thus established, thus spread, This thus continued, thus guided, in one uniform faith, the same and subordination of government, is that which is ́ with the termed the roman-catholic church: the qualities roman-cajust mentioned, unity, indeficiency, visibility, succession, and universality, being evidently applicable to her.

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from the testimony of which

we receive

tures to be

9. From the testimony and authority of this church, it is, that we receive the scriptures, and believe them to be the word of God: and as she can assuredly tell us what particular book is the the scripword of God, so can she with the like assurance God's tell us also, the true sense and meaning of it, in word. controverted points of faith; the same spirit that wrote the scriptures, directing her to understand both them, and all matters necessary to salvation. From these grounds it follows;

10. Only truths revealed by Almighty God, and proposed by the church, to be believed as such, are, and ought to be esteemed, articles of catholic faith.

Divine reonly matters of




11. As an obstinate separation from the unity of What the church, in known matters of faith, is heresy; so heresy, and a wilful separation from the visible unity of the schism. same church, in matters of subordination and government, is schism.

12. The church proposes unto us matters of.

P John, x. 16. and xvii. 20, 21, 22.

a Matt. xvi. 18. and xviii. 17.-1 Tim. iii. 15.

r Isa. lix. 21.-John, xiv. 26.

12. Strictly speaking, nothing is an article of catholic faith, that is not revealed by Almighty God, and proposed by the church to be believed, as such. This No. then appears to be obscurely worded; and, for this reason, is omitted by:

ters of faith

are pro

How mat- faith, first and chiefly by the holy scripture, in points plain and intelligible in it; secondly, by posed by definitions of general councils, in points not sufthe church. ficiently plain in scripture; thirdly, by apostolical traditions derived from Christ and his apostles to all succeeding ages; fourthly, by her practice, worship, and ceremonies confirming her doctrine.

What is the autho

of the church.


Of spiritual and temporal Authority.

1. THE pastors of the church, who are the body rity of ge- representative, either dispersed or convened in neral coun- council, have received no commission from Christ cils, and of the pastors to frame new articles of faith-these being solely divine revelations-but only to explain and to define to the faithful what anciently was and is received and retained, as of faith in the church, when debates and controversies arise about them. These definitions in matters of faith only, and proposed as such, oblige all the faithful to a submission of judgment. But,

An expla

nation of the same

2. It is no article of faith, that the church cannot err, either in matters of fact or discipline, authority. alterable by circumstances of time and place, or in matters of speculation or civil policy, depending

a Gal. i. 7, 8.

b Deut. xvii. 8.-Matt. xviii. 17.—Acts, xv.-Luke, x. 16. -Heb. xiii. 7. 17.

Mr. Berington and Mr. Gilbert. Dr. C. inserts the three first ways, but omits the last.

1. Only to explain and to ascertain to us-arise upon these subjects-all the faithful to an interior assent.-Dr. C.

2. In matters of fact, or in matters of speculation-on mere human reason: these not being divine revelations deposited in the catholic church.--Dr. C.

-on mcre ́ human judgment or testimony. These -things are no revelations deposited in the catholic church, in regard of which alone, she has the promised assistance of the Holy Spirit.-Hence it is deduced,

3. If a general council, much less a papal consis- A deductory, should presume to depose a king, and to ab- tion thence concerning solve his subjects from their allegiance, no catholic allegiance. could be bound to submit to such a decree.-Hence

also it follows, that,


4. The subjects of the king of England lawfully A second may, without the least breach of any catholic deduction principle, renounce, upon oath, the teaching or ing the practising the doctrine of deposing kings excom- same. municated for heresy, by any authority whatsoever, as repugnant to the fundamental laws of the nation, as injurious to sovereign power, as destructive to peace and government, and consequently in his majesty's subjects, as impious and damnable.


5. Catholics believe that the bishop of Rome, The bishop successor of St. Peter, is the head of the whole of Rome, catholic church; in which sense, this church may ofSt.Peter, therefore fitly be styled roman-catholic, being an head of the church; universal body, united under one visible head.— Nevertheless,


6. It is no matter of faith to believe that the but not inpope is in himself infallible, separated from the

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d Matt. xvi. 17, &c.—Luke, xxii. 32.-John, xxi. 15, &c. e Eph. iv. 11, &c.

4. Dr. C. ends with peace and good government; and Mr. B. observes in a note, that he dislikes the word damnable, as it conveys no idea, or if any, says too much; but lets it stand to show how desirous our ancestors were, by the most emphatical language, to express their detestation of the papal deposing


Nor hath any tem




church, even in expounding the faith: by conse quence, papal definitions or decrees, in whatever form pronounced, taken exclusively from a general council, or universal acceptance of the church, oblige none, under pain of heresy, to an interior assent.

7. Nor do catholics, as catholics, believe that the poral au- pope has any direct or indirect authority over the temporal power and jurisdiction of princes. Hence, if the pope should pretend to absolve or dispense with his majesty's subjects from their allegiance, on account of heresy or schism, such dispensation would be vain and null; and all catholic subjects, notwithstanding such dispensation or absolution, would be still bound in conscience to defend their king and country, at the hazard of their lives and fortunes, (as far as protestants would be bound,) even against the pope himself, in case he should invade the nation.


sible for

8. As for the problematical disputes, or errors of not respon- particular divines, in this or any other matter whatthe errors soever, we are no wise responsible for them; nor of particu- are catholics, as catholics, justly punishable on their lar divines. account. But,

ous and

King-kill- 9. As for the king-killing doctrine, or murder of ing doctrine impi- princes excommunicated for heresy, it is universally admitted in the catholic church, and expressly so declared by the council of Constance, that such doctrine is impious and execrable, being contrary to the known laws of God and nature.


10. Personal misdemeanors, of what nature soever,

14 Peter, ii. 12, &c.

• Sess. 15.

10. To be imputed to the body of catholics-tenets of catholic faith and doctrine. Dr. C.-These stories are more than mis-related: for there is no truth in either, as ascribed to the Irish or English catholics at large. Mr. B.

nors not to


ought not to be imputed to the catholic church, Personal when not justifiable by the tenets of her faith and misdemeadoctrine. For which reason, though the stories of be imputed the Irish cruelties or powder plot, had been exactly to the true, (which yet, for the most part, are notoriously mis-related,) nevertheless catholics, as such, ought not to suffer for such offences, any more than the eleven apostles ought to have suffered for the treachery of Judas.

can autho.


11. It is a fundamental truth in our religion, that No powe no power on earth can license men to lie, to for- on earth swear, or perjure themselves, to massacre their rize men to neighbours, or destroy their native country, on lie, forpretence of promoting the catholic cause or religion: murder, furthermore, all pardons or dispensations granted, or &c. pretended to be granted, in order to any such ends or designs, could have no other validity or effect, than to add sacrilege and blasphemy to the abovementioned crimes.

allowed in

the church.

12. The doctrine of equivocation or mental re- Equivocaservation, however wrongfully imputed to the tion not church, was never taught, or approved by her, as any part of her belief: on the contrary, simplicity and godly sincerity are constantly inculcated by her as truly christian virtues, necessary to the conservation of justice, truth, and common security.

12. Imputed to the catholic religion, was never taught, or approved of by the church:

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