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(2) The request, if any, sets forth the official purpose for which the information is needed;
(3) When the information has been claimed as confidential or has been determined to be confidential, the responsible EPA office provides notice to each affected business of the type of information to be disclosed and to whom it is to be disclosed. At the discretion of the office, such notice may be given by notice published in the FEDERAL REGISTER at least 10 days prior to disclosure, or by letter sent by certified mail return receipt requested or telegram either of which must be received by the affected business at least 10 days prior to disclosure. However, no notice shall be required when EPA furnishes business information to another Federal agency to perform a function on behalf of EPA, including but not limited to
(i) Disclosure to the Department of Justice for purposes of investigation or prosecution of civil or criminal violations of Federal law related to EPA activities;
(ii) Disclosure to the Department of Justice for purposes of representing EPA in any matter; or
(iii) Disclosure to any Federal agency for purposes of performing an EPA statutory function under an interagency agreement.
(4) EPA notifies the other agency of any unresolved business confidentiality claim covering the information and of any determination under this subpart that the information is entitled to confidential treatment, and that further disclosure of the information may be a violation of 18 U.S.C. 1905; and
(5) The other agency agrees in writing not to disclose further any information designated confidential unless
(i) The other agency has statutory authority both to compel production of the information and to make the proposed disclosure, and the other agency has, prior to disclosure of the information to anyone other than its officers and employees, furnished to each affected business at least the same notice to which the affected business would be entitled under this subpart;
(ii) The other agency has obtained the consent of each affected business to the proposed disclosure; or
(iii) The other agency has obtained a written statement from the EPA General Counsel or an EPA Regional Counsel that disclosure of the information would be proper under this subpart.
(d) Court-ordered disclosure. EPA may disclose any business information in any manner and to the extent ordered by a Federal court. Where possible, and when not in violation of a specific directive from the court, the EPA office disclosing information claimed as confidential or determined to be confidential shall provide as much advance notice as possible to each affected business of the type of information to be disclosed and to whom it is to be disclosed, unless the affected business has actual notice of the court order. At the discretion of the office, subject to any restrictions by the court, such notice may be given by notice in the FEDERAL REGISTER, letter sent by certified mail return receipt requested, or telegram.
(e) Disclosure within EPA. An EPA office, officer, or employee may disclose any business information to anotaer EPA office, officer, or employee with an official need for the information.
(f) Disclosure with consent of business. EPA may disclose any business information to any person if EPA has obtained the prior consent of each affected business to such disclosure.
(g) Record of disclosures to be maintained. Each EPA office which discloses information to Congress, a committee
subcommittee of Congress, the Comptroller General, or another Federal agency under the authority of paragraph (b) or (c) of this section, shall maintain a record of the fact of such disclosure for a period of not less than 36 months after such disclosure. Such a record, which may be in the form of a log, shall show the name of the affected businesses, the date of disclosure, the person or body to whom disclosure was made, and a description of the information disclosed.
(41 FR 36902, Sept. 1, 1976, as amended at 43 FR 40000, Sept. 8, 1978; 50 FR 51661, Dec. 18, 1985)
82.210 Nondisclosure for
(d) Each contractor or subcontractor other than business confidentiality with the United States Government, or where disclosure is prohibited and each employee of such contractor by other statute.
or subcontractor, who is furnished (a) Information which is not entitled
business information by EPA under to confidential treatment under this
$82.301(h), $2.302(h), 2.304(h), 2.305(h), subpart shall be made available to the
2.306(j), 2.307(h), 2.308(i), or 2.310(h) shall public (using the procedures set forth
use or disclose that information only in $82.204 and 2.205) if its release is re
as permitted by the contract or subquested under 5 U.S.C. 552, unless EPA
contract under which the information determines (under subpart A of this
was furnished. Contractors or subpart) that, for reasons other than rea
contractors shall take steps to propsons of business confidentiality, the in
erly safeguard business information information is exempt from mandatory
cluding following any security procedisclosure and cannot or should not be
dures for handling and safeguarding made available to the public. Any such
business information which are con
tained in any manuals, procedures, regdetermination under subpart A shall be coordinated with actions taken under
ulations, or guidelines provided by
EPA. Any violation of this paragraph this subpart for the purpose of avoiding delay in responding to requests under 5
shall constitute grounds for suspension
or debarment of the contractor or subU.S.C. 552.
contractor in question. A willful viola(b) Notwithstanding any other provi
tion of this paragraph may result in sion of this subpart, if any statute not
criminal prosecution. cited in this subpart appears to require EPA to give confidential treatment to
(41 FR 36902, Sept. 1, 1976, as amended at 50 any business information for reasons of
FR 51662, Dec. 18, 1985; 58 FR 461, Jan. 5, 1993) business confidentiality, the matter
82.212 Establishment of control offices shall be referred promptly to an EPA
for categories of business informalegal office for resolution. Pending res- tion. olution, such information shall be
(a) The Administrator, by order, may treated as if it were entitled to con
establish one or more mutually exclufidential treatment.
sive categories of business information, 82.211 Safeguarding of business infor
and may designate for each such catmation; penalty for wrongful disclo
egory an EPA office (hereinafter referred to as a control office) which shall
have responsibility for taking actions (a) No EPA officer or employee may
(other than actions required to be disclose, or use for his or her private
taken by an EPA legal office) with regain or advantage, any business infor
spect to all information within such mation which came into his or her pos
category. session, or to which he or she gained
(b) If a control office has been asaccess, by virtue of his or her official
signed responsibility for a category of position or employment, except as au- business information, no other EPA ofthorized by this subpart.
fice, officer, or employee may make (b) Each EPA officer or employee available to the public (or otherwise who has custody or possession of busi- disclose to persons other than EPA ofness information shall take appro- ficers and employees) any information priate measures to properly safeguard in that category without first obtainsuch information and to protect ing the concurrence of the control ofagainst its improper disclosure.
fice. Requests under 5 U.S.C. 552 for re(c) Violation of paragraph (a) or (b) of lease of such information shall be rethis section shall constitute grounds ferred to the control office. for dismissal, suspension, fine, or other (c) A control office shall take the acadverse personnel action. Willful viola- tions and make the determinations retion of paragraph (a) of this section quired by $2.204 with respect to all inmay result in criminal prosecution formation in any category for which under 18 U.S.C. 1905 or other applicable the control office has been assigned restatute.
(d) A control office shall maintain a record of the following, with respect to items of business information in categories for which it has been assigned responsibility:
(1) Business confidentiality claims;
(2) Comments submitted in support of claims;
(3) Waivers and withdrawals of claims;
(4) Actions and determinations by EPA under this subpart;
(5) Actions by Federal courts; and
(6) Related information concerning business confidentiality. 82.213 Designation by business of ad
dressee for notices and inquiries. (a) A business which wishes to designate a person or office as the proper addressee of communications from EPA to the business under this subpart may do so by furnishing in writing to the Freedom of Information Officer (A101), Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M St. SW., Washington, DC 20460, the following information: The name and address of the business making the designation; the name, address, and telephone number of the designated person or office; and a request that EPA inquiries and communications (oral and written) under this subpart, including inquiries and notices which require reply within deadlines if the business is to avoid waiver of its rights under this subpart, be furnished to the designee pursuant to this section. Only one person or office may serve at any one time as a business's designee under this subpart.
(b) If a business has named a designee under this section, the following EPA inquiries and notices to the business shall be addressed to the designee:
(1) Inquiries concerning a business's desire to assert a business confidentiality claim, under $2.204(c)(2)(i)(A);
(2) Notices affording opportunity to substantiate confidentiality claims, under $2.204(d)(1) and 2.204(e);
(3) Inquires concerning comments, under $2.205(b)(4);
(4) Notices of denial of confidential treatment and proposed disclosure of information, under $2.205(f);
(5) Notices concerning shortened comment and/or waiting periods under $2.205(g);
(6) Notices concerning modifications or overrulings of prior determinations, under $2.205(h);
(7) Notices to affected businesses under $82.301(g) and 2.301(h) and analogous provisions in $82.302, 2.303, 2.304, 2.305, 2.306, 2.307, and 2.308; and
(8) Notices to affected businesses under $2.209.
(c) The Freedom of Information Officer shall, as quickly as possible, notify all EPA offices that may possess information submitted by the business to EPA, the Regional Freedom of Information Offices, the Office of General Counsel, and the offices of Regional Counsel of any designation received under this section. Businesses making designations under this section should bear in mind that several working days may be required for dissemination of this information within EPA and that some EPA offices may not receive notice of such designations. (41 FR 36902, Sept. 1, 1976, as amended at 43 FR 40001, Sept. 8, 1978) $ 2.214 Defense of Freedom of Informa
tion Act suits; participation by af
fected business. (a) In making final confidentiality determinations under this subpart, the EPA legal office relies to a large extent upon the information furnished by the affected business to substantiate its claim of confidentiality. The EPA legal office may be unable to verify the accuracy of much of the information submitted by the affected business.
(b) If the EPA legal office makes a final confidentiality determination under this subpart that certain business information is entitled to confidential treatment, and EPA is sued by a requester under the Freedom of Information Act for disclosure of that information, EPA will:
(1) Notify each affected business of the suit within 10 days after service of the complaint upon EPA;
(2) Where necessary to preparation of EPA's defense, call upon each affected business to furnish assistance; and
(3) Not oppose a motion by any affected business to intervene as a party to the suit under rule 24(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.
(c) EPA will defend its final confidentiality determination, but EPA expects
the affected business to cooperate to (C) Overly burden the resources of the fullest extent possible in this de- EPA. fense.
(d) To determine that an agreement [43 FR 40001, Sept. 8, 1978)
proposed under paragraph (b) of this
section is proper, the General Counsel 8 2.215 Confidentiality agreements.
must find that the agreement states(a) No EPA officer, employee, con
(1) The purpose for which the infor
mation is required by EPA; tractor, or subcontractor shall enter into any agreement with any affected
(2) The conditions under which the
agency will furnish the information to business to keep business information
EPA; confidential unless such agreement is consistent with this subpart. No EPA
(3) The information subject to the officer, employee, contractor, or sub
agreement; contractor shall promise any affected
(4) That the agreement does not business that business information will
cover information acquired by EPA
from another source; be kept confidential unless the promise is consistent with this subpart.
(5) The manner in which EPA will (b) If an EPA office has requested in
treat the information; and formation from a State, local, or Fed
(6) That EPA will treat the informaeral agency and the agency refuses to
tion in accordance with the agreement furnish the information to EPA be
subject to an order of a Federal court cause the information is or may con
to disclose the information. stitute confidential business informa
(e) EPA will treat any information tion, the EPA office may enter into an
acquired pursuant to an agreement agreement with the agency to keep the
under paragraph (b) of this section in information confidential, notwith
accordance with the procedures of this standing the provisions of this subpart.
subpart except where the agreement However, no such agreement shall be
specifies otherwise. made unless the General Counsel deter- (43 FR 40001, Sept. 8, 1978) mines that the agreement is necessary and proper.
$$ 2.216–2.300 (Reserved) (c) To determine that an agreement proposed under paragraph (b) of this $ 2.301 Special rules governing certain section is necessary, the General Coun
information obtained under the
Clean Air Act. sel must find:
(1) The EPA office requesting the in- (a) Definitions. For the purpose of this formation needs the information to section: perform its functions;
(1) Act means the Clean Air Act, as (2) The agency will not furnish the amended, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq. information to EPA without an agree- (2)(i) Emission data means, with refment by EPA to keep the information erence to any source of emission of any confidential; and
substance into the air(3) Either:
(A) Information necessary to deter(i) EPA has no statutory power to mine the identity, amount, frequency, compel submission of the information concentration, or other characteristics directly from the affected business, or (to the extent related to air quality) of
(ii) While EPA has statutory power any emission which has been emitted to compel submission of the informa- by the source (or of any pollutant retion directly from the affected busi- sulting from any emission by the ness, compelling submission of the in- source), or any combination of the formation directly from the business foregoing; would
(B) Information necessary to deter(A) Require time in excess of that mine the identity, amount, frequency, available to the EPA office to perform concentration, or other characteristics its necessary work with the informa- (to the extent related to air quality) of tion,
the emissions which, under an applica(B) Duplicate information already ble standard or limitation, the source collected by the other agency and over- was authorized to emit (including, to ly burden the affected business, or the extent necessary for such purposes,
a description of the manner or rate of operation of the source); and
(C) A general description of the location and/or nature of the source to the extent necessary to identify the source and to distinguish it from other sources (including, to the extent necessary for such purposes, a description of the device, installation, or operation constituting the source).
(ii) Notwithstanding paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section, the following information shall be considered to be emission data only to the extent necessary to allow EPA to disclose publicly that a source is (or is not) in compliance with an applicable standard or limitation, or to allow EPA to demonstrate the feasibility, practicability, or attainability (or lack thereof) of an existing or proposed standard or limitation:
(A) Information concerning research, or the results of research, on any project, method, device or installation (or any component thereof) which was produced, developed, installed, and used only for research purposes; and
(B) Information concerning any product, method, device, or installation (or any component thereof) designed and intended to be marketed or used commercially but not yet so marketed or used.
(3) Standard or limitation means any emission standard or limitation established or publicly proposed pursuant to the Act or pursuant to any regulation under the Act.
(4) Proceeding means any rulemaking, adjudication, or licensing conducted by EPA under the Act or under regulations which implement the Act, except for determinations under this subpart.
(5) Manufacturer has the meaning given it in section 216(1) of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7550(1).
(b) Applicability. (1) This section applies to business information which was
(i) Provided or obtained under section 114 of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7414, by the owner or operator of any stationary source, for the purpose (A) of developing or assisting in the development of any implementation plan under section 110 or 111(d) of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7410, 7411(d), any standard of performance under section 111 of the Act, 42
U.S.C. 7411, or any emission standard under section 112 of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7412, (B) of determining whether any person is in violation of any such standard or any requirement of such a plan, or (C) of carrying out any provision of the Act (except a provision of Part II of the Act with respect to a manufacturer of new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines);
(ii) Provided or obtained under section 208 of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7542, for the purpose of enabling the Administrator to determine whether a manufacturer has acted or is acting in compliance with the Act and regulations under the Act, or provided or obtained under section 206(c) of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7525(c); or
(iii) Provided in response to a subpoena for the production of papers, books, or documents issued under the authority of section 307(a) of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7607(a).
(2) Information will be considered to have been provided or obtained under section 114 of the Act if it was provided in response to a request by EPA made for any of the purposes stated in section 114, or if its submission could have been required under section 114, regardless of whether section 114 was cited as the authority for any request for the information, whether an order to provide the information was issued under section 113(a) of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7413(a), whether an action was brought under section 113(b) of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7413(b), or whether the information was provided directly to EPA or through some third person.
(3) Information will be considered to have been provided or obtained under section 208 of the Act if it was provided in response to a request by EPA made for any of the purposes stated in section 208, or if its submission could have been required under section 208, regardless of whether section 208 was cited as the authority for any request for the information, whether an action was brought under section 204 of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7523, or whether the information was provided directly to EPA through some third person.
(4) Information will be considered to have been provided or obtained under section 206(c) of the Act if it was provided in response to a request by EPA